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Bay window is a common term for all protruding window constructions, regardless of whether they run over one or multiple storeys. They are usually polygonal or square in plan, with at least three segments, but they can also be curved, in which case they may be called bow windows.
Casement windows have hinged openings. They are usually hinged on the sides, but top or bottom-hinged variants also exist. These can be roughly modeled in Minecraft using doors, trapdoors or gates.
- Awning window – this is hinged at the top and usually swings outwards.
- Hopper window – this is hinged at the bottom and usually swings inwards. It would normally be limited to a tilt angle of no more than about 40 degrees.
A clerestory (also clearstory, clearstorey, or overstorey) is a window too high to see out of that lets light into a building.
A light well is an unroofed opening inside a large building that allows natural light to reach interior rooms.
Also known as a jalousie window, this design uses many parallel slats that all hinge open or closed together. It is probably not feasible to model this at normal Minecraft scales.
An oculus (also oeuil de boeuf or bull’s eye) is a circular opening in a dome or wall, not necessarily glazed. The [oculus] in the domed ceiling of the [Pantheon] is open to the elements and has a diameter of 8 metres.
An oriel or oriel window is similar to a bay window, except that it doesn't reach the ground. That means it needs underside supports as well as its own roof cover. The styling of the roof and the supports may vary from simple to extremely elaborate.
Oriels can be supported in various ways (e.g. by brackets or corbels), but at Minecraft scales the technical differences between the supports is generally indistinguishable.
A picture window is a large, plain window set in a wall. It provides an unimpeded view, as if it was framing a picture. Picture windows are too large to be openable.
These are sliding windows arranged so that parts can slide over one another. Depending on the design they may slide horizontally or vertically, and they may have some fixed panes as well as the moving panes. They can be roughly modeled in Minecraft using pistons or sticky pistons.
- Single-hung sash – a two-part window with a moveable lower part (usually) that can be moved to overlap the fixed upper part.
- Double-hung sash – a two-part window where either part is moveable to overlap the other.
- Horizontal sliding sash, Yorkshire sash – a type of sash window that slides from side to side, and which may have more than two parts.
A window or decorative opening over a doorway. Also known as a transom or transom light. A decorative fan-shaped window used in this way is termed a fanlight.
A few more to add, but for many window types the distinctions are moot in Minecraft because you can't model things on a fine enough scale to reflect the differences. (e.g. Sash window, louvred window...)
Tilt and turn, tilt and slide
These window designs can both tilt inwards (like a hopper window), or open inwards (like a casement window) or slide (like a horizontal sash window). Combining these movements in a single window design would be difficult at normal Minecraft scales.
Thermal or Diocletian windows are semi-circular with three segments separated by Mullions.