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A minecart, one method of transportation

Transportation involves the methods by which players move around the world or between dimensions (the Overworld, the Nether and the End).


Note: As 1 block is 1 m3, 1 m/s is equal to 1 block per second. Thus for convenience, all speeds are shown in SI units. 1 m/s equals 3.28 ft/s and 1 km/h equals 0.621 mph. It is important to remember that the speeds also assume that the form of transportation doesn't have, if any or if possible, the Speed or Slowness status effect. Some forms are not affected by status effects. Elytras are only slower than listed below if the player has the Slow Falling status effect.

Method Conditions Running start? Average speed (m/s) Average speed (km/h) Works in Nether Average speed (m/s) Overworld equivalent[note 1] Average speed (km/h) Overworld equivalent
Walking Flat terrain No 4.3 15.5 Yes 34.4 124.0
Sprinting Flat terrain No 5.6 20.2 Yes 44.8 161.6
Sneaking Flat terrain No 1.3 4.7 Yes 10.4 37.6
Minecart Powered Track Yes, small 8.0 28.8 Yes 64.0 230.4
14 slope track No 7.1 25.6 Yes 56.8 204.8
Boat[note 2] 14 slope rapids Yes, small 7.3 26.4 No, water cannot be placed without the use of commands 58.4 211.2
14 slope rapids No 7.0 25.2 No, water cannot be placed without the use of commands 56.0 201.6
Flat ice Flat packed ice Flat frosted ice No 40.0 144.0 Yes 320 1152
Flat blue ice No 70.0 252.0 Yes 560 2016
Flat water No 8.0 28.8 No, water cannot be placed without the use of commands 64.0 230.4
Saddled pig Flat terrain No 4.0 14.4 Yes 32.0 115.2
Flat terrain, using carrot on a stick Yes 4.19 15.08 Yes 33.52 120.64
Horse [note 3] Flat terrain No 9.675 34.83 Yes 77.4 278.6
Flat terrain, fastest possible horse breed No 14.57 52.45 Yes 116.6 419.6
Flat terrain No 7.525 27.125 Yes 60.2 217.0
Zombie horse
Skeleton horse
Flat terrain No 8.62 31.03 Yes 68.9 248.2
Swimming Still water, surface[note 4] No 2.20 7.92 No, water cannot be placed without the use of commands 17.6 63.36
Still water, underwater[note 5] No 1.97 7.09 No, water cannot be placed without the use of commands 15.76 56.72
Upstream, underwater No 0.39 1.40 No, water cannot be placed without the use of commands 3.12 11.2
Downstream, underwater No 1.81 6.52 No, water cannot be placed without the use of commands 14.48 52.16
While Diving No 0.39 1.40 No, water cannot be placed without the use of commands 3.12 11.2
Downstream, underwater, standing No 1.37 4.93 No, water cannot be placed without the use of commands 10.96 39.44
Dolphin's Grace status effect No 80.0 288.0 No, water cannot be placed without the use of commands 640.0 2304.0
Flying (horizontal)[note 6] Creative Mode
Spectator Mode
Yes 11.0 39.6 Yes 88.0 316.8
Sprint-flying Yes 22.0 79.2 Yes 176.0 633.6
Ender Pearl Thrown 15° above horizontal No ~23.0 ~82.8 Yes ~184.0 ~662.4
Biggest TNT pearl cannon[note 7] Yes 1760000 6336000 Yes 14080000 50688000
Elytra Gliding at 0° pitch Yes, small 30.0 108.0 Yes 240.0 864.0
Continuous rocket boost No 33.5 120.6 Yes 268.0 964.8
Gliding at 52° pitch down Yes 67.3 242.3 Yes 538.4 1938.2
Gliding at 90° pitch down Yes 78.4 282.2 Yes, can only be done above bedrock 627.2 2257.9
  1. Certain transportation methods are also valid methods of transportation if used in the Nether. Since one block in the Nether is equal to eight blocks in the Overworld, using the Nether for transportation effectively multiplies transportation speeds by eight.
  2. The time taken by a boat to reach maximum speed is 9.4 seconds—the difference in time between a running start and not, is half that, or 4.7 seconds.
  3. Horses vary in speed. They are the fastest method of land transportation on open terrain.
  4. The swimming speeds are not affected by Swiftness potions. The surface speed refers to "skimming" across the top of the water by holding the spacebar.
  5. Underwater refers to any part of the body submerged in water and walking on flat terrain. The Player travels the same speed regardless of if the water is 1 block deep or 2 (in observed cases).
  6. Flying speed can be varied.
  7. Data based on


Using potion effects (including beacon effects), walking and sprinting speeds become competitive with other methods of transportation.

Each additional level of Speed allows the player to walk at nearly the sprinting speed of the previous level, and sprinting with Speed II is only slightly slower than a minecart at full speed or a boosted pig. With adequate food and potion supplies, sprinting may be more cost-effective than building high-speed transportation systems.

Effect level Walking speed (m/s) Sprinting speed (m/s)
none 4.317 5.612
Speed 5.181 6.735
Speed II 6.044 7.857


Using the /effect command, extremely high or low speeds become reachable. At exceedingly high levels (100+), the player moves faster than chunks can load.

Effect level Sneaking speed (m/s) Walking speed (m/s) Sprinting speed (m/s)
Speed 50 14.25 47.49 61.74
Speed 127 34.19 113.97 148.17
Speed 256 67.61 225.36 292.96

Vertical transportation[edit]

This section needs updating.
Description: Add speeds for scaffolding and bubble columns.

There are some examples of purely vertical transportation methods:

Method Conditions Average speed (m/s)
Jumping [note 1] Climbing slope without stairs, pillar jumping, etc 2.0
Stairs Ascending 3.2
Descending 3.6
Ladder Ascending 2.35
Descending 3.0
Waterfall No adjacent blocks 2.0
Ascending, with adjacent blocks 0.6
Descending, with adjacent blocks 3.4
Lavafall Using a Potion of Fire Resistance 0.8
Levitation Level 1 0.9
Flying Creative
Falling No blocks below player 86.7
Swimming Water 0.39
  1. The player can jump up a distance of 1 14 blocks. With Jump Boost I, that increases to 1 1516 blocks, and with Jump Boost II, that increases to 2 12 blocks.

Falling speed is more complex: Every tick (120 second), non-flying players and mobs have their vertical speed decremented (less upward motion, more downward motion) by 0.08 blocks per tick (1.6 m/s), then multiplied by 0.98. This would produce a terminal velocity of 3.92 blocks per tick, or 78.4 m/s. However, the sky isn't quite high enough for that: Falling from layer 256 to bedrock takes about 5.5 seconds, with impact at 3.5 blocks per tick (70 m/s). (In creative mode, you can fly higher, and could potentially reach terminal velocity falling from "above the sky".)

An exact function to calculate the speed of a (free)falling player is the following: v(t) = (392/5) ((98/100)floor(20t) - 1). Where the velocity v is in blocks/second (or meters/second), the time t is in seconds, initial velocity is zero and downwards motion is negative. 20 t is floored because Minecraft only updates once a tick.

An exact function to calculate the displacement of the player is the following: d(t) = 392(10 - (1/5) floor(20t) - 10(49/50)floor(20t)). Where the displacement d is in blocks (meters), the time t is in seconds, initial velocity and displacement is zero and downwards displacement is negative

An approximate function to calculate the time it takes to fall from some height is the following: t(d) = 1000 - 5.102d + 989.960 W-1(-0.36786e0.0051538d). Where the height d is in blocks (meters), the time t is in seconds, downwards displacement is negative and W is the Lambert W function.

Other modes of transportation[edit]

  • Players are also able to use pistons for transport.
  • Dying is an instant mode of transportation that will take you to your bed or spawn point, but at the cost of all of your items and XP (if the keepInventory gamerule is disabled) and your world (on Hardcore).
  • Standing next to an explosion will send you flying for a certain distance, depending on the strength of the explosion.
    • Not recommended in Survival mode.
    • Due to to how damage is calculated after explosion knockback, you can’t take damage if you make the player cannon powerful enough.
  • It is possible to mount minecarts and boats as long as they are within 4-5 blocks (inclusive) from the player. Placing minecarts in a straight line allows for extremely fast transport. This also works with saddled pigs, provided they stay in position (placed on posts).


Icon Achievement In-game description Actual requirements (if different) Availability Xbox points earned Trophy type (PS)
Xbox PS Bedrock Nintendo
On A RailTravel by minecart to a point at least 500m in a single direction from where you started.Travel by minecart to a point at least 500 m from where you started. Distance is measured in a straight line.YesYesYesYes40GGold
Beam Me UpTeleport over 100 meters from a single throw of an ender pearlYesYesYesYes20GSilver
Super SonicFly with the elytra through a 1 by 1 gap while moving faster than 40 m/sYesYesAltYes60GGold


Icon Advancement In-game description Parent Actual requirements (if different) Internal ID
Advancement-fancy-raw.png Subspace BubbleUse the Nether to travel 7 km in the OverworldNetherUse the Nether to travel between 2 points in the Overworld with a minimum horizontal distance of 7000 blocks between each other, about 875 blocks in the Nether.minecraft:nether/fast_travel



Java Edition pre-Classic
rd-132211Added walking as the first form of locomotion.
Java Edition Classic
0.0.12aAdded water and lava. "Swimming" (more akin to treading water) introduced.
Java Edition Infdev
June 18, 2010Added minecarts.
June 25, 2010, 2Added saddles, which made it possible to use pigs as a (somewhat unreliable) method of transportation.
Java Edition Alpha
v1.0.6Added boats.
v1.1.1Added sneaking.
v1.2.0previewAdded the Nether in the Halloween Update, which could be used as a fast travel zone since any distance covered in the Nether is multiplied by 8 in the Overworld.
Java Edition Beta
1.5Added powered rails, which removed the need for "booster" minecarts.
1.8?Sprinting and flying were added in the Adventure Update.
Fixed an infamous bug where walking on the edges of blocks would accumulate step sounds and rapidly play them upon touching solid ground.
Java Edition
1.0.0Beta 1.9 Prerelease 2Added ender pearls in the second half of the Adventure Update, which can be thrown, teleporting the player to where it lands.
Beta 1.9 Prerelease 3Speed potions added, allowing for faster travel.
1.3.112w23aBoats were made faster.
1.4.212w36aAdded carrot on a stick in the Pretty Scary Update, which made it possible to control saddled pigs.[1] They start slow but will end up going up to 5 blocks per second (5m/sec).[2]
Before this update, the player had no control over the pig's wandering, so this was not a practical form of long-distance transportation. After this update, however, the pig did not jump when being controlled, so transportation was still limited (to the same height or downhill directions).
12w37aSaddled pigs now jump over blocks when being directed with the carrot on a stick.
12w38aTeleportation by Nether Portal is now instantaneous in creative mode.
1.6.113w16aAdded horses in the Horse Update.
13w16bMade horses slower and reduced the amount of gliding.
1.7.213w36aAdded ability to "sprint" in minecarts in The Update that Changed the World, boats and horses, and while flying in Creative Mode, speeding them up slightly.
1.814w05aAdded Spectator mode in the Bountiful Update, one of the fastest methods of transportation due to its no-clip ability and adjustable flying speed.
1.915w31aAdded levitation in the Combat Update.
15w41aAdded elytra in the Combat Update.
1.1318w07aAdded the ability to sprint while in water in the Update Aquatic, which causes the player to dive to the ground and actually swim. This is much faster than the previous form.
Pocket Edition Alpha
0.1.0Added water, therefore allowing swimming.
0.2.0Added flying.
0.8.0build 2Added minecarts and rails, allowing travel by minecart.
0.11.0build 1Added boats.
0.12.1build 1Added sneaking and sprinting.
0.14.0build 1Added ender pearls.
0.15.0build 1Added horses in the Friendly Update.
Added saddles, which can be equipped on horses and pigs to ride them.
Added carrot on a stick to control pigs when riding.
Pocket Edition
1.0.0alpha elytra in the Ender Update.


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