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A river bisecting a jungle biome. At the top right is a forest.
A river running through a mesa biome with mesa plateaus, with a savanna biome in the bottom right.
Jeb twitter.jpg In case you don’t know what a “biome” is, it’s a climate zone used in the game to set what kind of surface the ground has (sand? grass?), whether it should rain or snow, what trees grow there, and sometimes also what kind of animals that are allowed to spawn there.
Jens Bergensten [1]

Biomes are regions in a Minecraft world with varying geographical features, flora, heights, temperatures, humidity ratings, and sky and foliage colors. Biomes separate every generated world into different environments, such as forests, jungles, deserts, and taigas.


Biomes have a temperature value that determines if it snows, rains, or does not have either. The required values are less than 0.15 for snow, 0.15 - 0.95 for rain, or greater than 1.0 for neither. These values can be used to determine the heights that snow generates in different biomes. The temperature also drops 0.00166667(1600) per meter above the default sea level (Y=64), but does not change below sea level. For example, extreme hills generate snow at Y=95, due to highland climate, as the base value is 0.2, and savannas do not experience rain or snow due to their heat. The "sea level" setting of a customized world does not affect this.

Biomes are split into 5 categories based on their temperature: snow-covered, cold, medium, dry/warm, and neutral. They were separated to prevent biomes with huge temperature differences being placed side-by-side (such as cold taiga next to a desert), and to allow biomes with similar temperatures to be placed next to each other more often. (Such as forest and swampland)

Biome types

There are 38 main biomes in the Overworld (with two being unused), one in The Nether, one in The End and 22 technical biomes, bringing the total number to 62 distinct biomes. Biomes can be distinguished by the grass and leaf colors in the biome, along with the types of blocks present (e.g. types of trees or other plants like cacti, sand coverage in deserts). Biomes are pseudo-randomly generated using the map seed.

Biomes are separated into 5 categories. The snow-covered biomes are marked in blue, cold in green, medium/lush in orange and dry/warm in red. The biomes which are not labeled are either neutral or unknown. Temperatures are given at sea level.

Snowy biomes

In these biomes, it snows at any height. The foliage and grass is a dark aqua-green.

Biome Name and ID Features Description Images

Ice Plains

Temperature: 0.0

Snow, Snowfall, Oak Trees, Ice, Spruce Trees, Igloos, Strays, White and some Black & White Rabbits, Polar Bears, Occasional Tall Grass

An expansive, flat biome with a huge amount of snow. All sources of water exposed to the sky are frozen over. Sugar cane will generate in this biome, but can become uprooted when chunks load as the water sources freeze to ice. There are very few natural oak and spruce trees in this biome. No passive mobs other than rabbits and the rare polar bears are able to spawn, however it is one of the few biomes where strays appear. Due to the biome's size, snow and ice cover, and scarcity of wood and animals, initial survival becomes difficult in comparison to other biomes. This is one of only two biomes where igloos naturally generate.

Ice Plains Spikes

Temperature: 0.0

Packed Ice, Snow, Snow Blocks, Strays, White and some Black & White Rabbits, Polar Bears, Ice Spikes

A rare variation of the Ice Plains biome that features large spikes of packed ice, as well as packed ice 'lakes'. Usually the spikes are 10 to 20 blocks tall, but some long, thin spikes can reach over 50 blocks in height. All grass blocks in this biome are replaced with blocks of snow. Like the regular ice plains, no passive mobs other than rabbits and the rare polar bears are able to spawn and strays appear at night.
Ice Plains Spikes.png

Cold Taiga

Temperature: -0.5

Snow, Snowfall, Ice, Spruce Trees, Flowers, Wolves, White and some Black & White Rabbits, Igloos

Much like the regular taiga, the cold taiga is a relatively flat biome with large expanses of spruce trees. Ferns, and their taller variants, generate here quite commonly, although regular tall grass can still be found. It is one of the few places where wolves will naturally spawn. One may also find an igloo nestled between the trees, making it one of only two biomes where igloos naturally generate.
Snowy Forest.png

Cold Taiga M

Temperature: -0.5

Spruce Trees, Snow, Snowfall, Ferns, Wolves, White and some Black & White Rabbits

The cold taiga M is not nearly as flat as its regular counterpart. Compared to regular taiga hills, the hills found in this biome are much steeper and more erratic. This large height differences make navigating the cold taiga M biome quite dangerous. Also unlike its normal variant, igloos do not generate here.
Cold Taiga M.png

Frozen River

Temperature: 0.0

Ice, Water, Sand, Clay

A river with a layer of ice covering its surface. It represents a separation of two cold biomes, but can also divide single biomes. Frozen rivers would connect to frozen oceans, before the latter was removed. Frozen rivers will not generate where a cold biome meets a warmer biome; regular rivers will generate instead.
Frozen River.png

Cold Beach

Temperature: 0.05

Sand, Snow, Snowfall, Ice

Like a regular beach, one can find plenty of sand in this biome. However, this sand is covered in a layer of snow. Cold beaches are often found when a cold biome borders an ocean biome. No passive mobs will spawn in this biome.
Cold Beach.png

Cold biomes

In these biomes, it begins to snow over a certain height, but before the 256 block height limit. Otherwise, it rains. The foliage and grass is an aqua-green.

Biome Name and ID Features Description Images

Extreme Hills

Temperature: 0.2

Oak Trees, Spruce Trees, Gravel, Flowers, Emerald Ore, Monster Egg, Llamas

A highland biome (with some mountaintops reaching y=130 or even higher) with a few scattered oak and spruce trees. Cliffs, peaks, valleys, waterfalls, overhangs, floating islands, caverns, and many other structures exist, offering outstanding views. This is one of the few biomes where llamas spawn naturally. Snowfall also occurs above certain heights, thus creating "snow caps" on the top of the mountains. Falling is a significant risk, as there are many steep ledges large enough to cause severe fall damage or even death. Extreme hills are the only biomes where emerald ores and silverfish can be found naturally.
Extreme Hills.png

Extreme Hills M

Temperature: 0.2

Spruce Trees, Oak Trees, Gravel, Snow

The mountains in this biome are slightly higher than in their regular counterpart, many of which reach into the clouds and are covered by snow peaks. The terrain here is composed mainly of gravel, with small patches of grass here and there. Due to the low amounts of grass, the population of spruce and oak trees in this biome is much more sparse.
Extreme Hills M.png

Extreme Hills+

Temperature: 0.2

Stone, Dirt, Spruce Trees, Oak Trees

This biome, usually found in the middle of regular extreme hills, generates much taller mountains, most of which will therefore be covered by snow. The slopes are quite steep, which makes scaling these mountains difficult and dangerous. The peaks feature a much higher concentration of grass and spruce trees, forming a small forest at the top.

Extreme Hills+ M

Temperature: 0.2

Spruce Trees, Oak Trees, Gravel, Grass

This variant of the extreme hills + biome removes its signature spruce tree covered peaks in favor of terrain covered mostly by gravel and stone, similar to the extreme hills M biome. Larger and deeper valleys are carved into the relatively barren landscape - only a few isolated trees can be found here.
Extreme Hills plus M.png


Temperature: 0.25

Spruce Trees, Flowers, Fern, Wolves, Brown, salt & pepper and black rabbits, Villages

A predominantly flat biome covered by a forest of spruce trees. Ferns and large ferns grow commonly on the forest floor. One may find packs of wolves here, along with small groups of rabbits. Villages may generate in this biome; naturally, the houses in these villages are built of spruce wood. Pine Forest.png1.8 Biomes PineForest.png

Taiga M

Temperature: 0.25

Spruce Trees, Flowers, Ferns, Sheep, Brown, salt & pepper and black rabbits

The taiga M also features large spruce forests, but these forests are overlayed onto mountainous terrain. Unlike regular taiga hills, these mountains tend to be larger and more difficult to climb. Perhaps owing to the rough nature of this biome, no villages can be found here.
Taiga M.png

Mega Taiga

Temperature: 0.3

Spruce Trees, Podzol, Ferns, Wolves, Brown, salt & pepper and black rabbits, Moss Stone, Mushrooms, Dirt, Coarse Dirt, Dead Bush

The mega taiga is an uncommon biome composed of spruce trees, much like the standard taiga biome. However, some trees are 2×2 thick and very tall, not unlike large jungle trees. Moss stone boulders appear frequently, brown mushrooms are common and podzol can be found on the forest floor. There are also patches of coarse dirt, which will not grow grass. Wolves may also spawn here, as they do in normal taiga biomes.
Mega Taiga.png

Mega Spruce Taiga

Temperature: 0.25

Spruce Trees, Podzol, Ferns, Grass, Moss Stone, Mushrooms, Dirt

The terrain in this rare biome is almost exactly the same as in its regular counterpart. But the most striking feature of this biome is its giant spruce trees, which are essentially a scaled-up version of regular spruce trees. One can easily differentiate this from a normal mega taiga by observing how the leaves almost completely cover the tree trunks, whereas in normal mega taigas, leaves only tend to cover the top.
Mega Spruce Taiga.png

Stone Beach

Temperature: 0.2

Stone, Gravel, Water

True to its name, this stone-covered biome often appears where extreme hills biomes meet the ocean. Depending on the height of the nearby land, stone beaches may generate as medium slopes or huge cliffs, its tops tall enough to be covered by snow. No passive mobs will generate here.
Oceanfront Mountains.png

Medium/Lush biomes

In these biomes, it begins snowing over the 256 blocks height limit. Otherwise, it rains. The foliage and grass is a vibrant light green, except swamps and roofed forests, which have a dark green grass. Rivers are also exempt from this, as they have a dull blue hue.

Biome Name and ID Features Description Images


Temperature: 0.8

Tall Grass, Grass, Flowers, NPC Villages, Horses, Donkeys, Oak Trees

A relatively flat and grassy biome with rolling hills and few trees. Gullies, water holes, and NPC villages are common. Cave openings and water or lava springs are easily identifiable due to the flat unobstructed terrain. Passive mobs spawn often in plains biomes; this biome and its variants are also one of the only biomes where horses spawn naturally. Grassland.png1.8 Biomes Grassland.png

Sunflower Plains

Temperature: 0.8

Grass, Sunflowers, Horses, Oak Trees

Usually found within normal plains, this biome is the only place where sunflowers naturally generate, hence its name. They grow in abundance, making yellow dye a widely available resource to those who live here. Villages will not generate in this biome. There are no other notable terrain differences from the normal plains biome. Sunflower plains.png


Temperature: 0.7

Oak and Birch Trees, Flowers, Wolves, Mushrooms

A biome with a lot of oak and birch trees, occasional hills, and a fair amount of tall grass. Mushrooms and flowers can occasionally be found here. This is one of the most preferred biomes to start out in, due to the abundance of wood. However, the frequency of trees also makes it dangerous to navigate at night, due to obscured vision. Forest biomes are also one of the smallest biomes. Deciduous Forest.png1.8 Biomes MixedForest.png

Flower Forest

Temperature: 0.7

Flowers, Trees, Brown, salt & pepper and black rabbits

This forest variation has fewer trees, but more than makes up for it - it is almost overflowing with nearly every type of flower and tall plant in the game, several of which will only grow in this biome. Therefore, this biome is optimal for harvesting and farming dyes. No wolves will spawn in the flower forest, although rabbits will spawn occasionally. Flower forest 2.png

Birch Forest

Temperature: 0.6

Birch Trees, Flowers

A forest in which only birch trees generate. If one prefers to build with only a single wood types, and that wood type happens to be birch, they will certainly find themselves at home here. Unlike in the regular forest, no wolves will spawn in this biome. Birch Trees Only.pngBirch forest.png

Birch Forest M

Temperature: 0.6

Tall Birch Trees, Flowers

Birch trees grow much taller than usual in this uncommon variant of the birch forest biome. Whereas normal birch trees grow up to 7 blocks tall, these trees often exceed 10 blocks in height. This makes deforestation a much more difficult task, although it provides the player with far more birch resources. Birch forest m.png

Roofed Forest

Temperature: 0.7

Dark Oak Trees, Huge Mushrooms, Mushrooms, Rose Bushes Woodland Mansions

This biome is composed of dark oak trees, a mostly closed roof of leaves, and occasional large mushrooms. Trees in this forest are so plentiful and so close together, that at some spots it may become dark enough for hostile mobs to spawn, even during the day. On very rare occasions, a woodland mansion may spawn. Therefore, the roofed forest is the only biome in which the illager mobs and the totem of undying can be found. RoofedForest.png

Roofed Forest M

Temperature: 0.7

Dark Oak Trees, Huge Mushrooms

A variation of the roofed forest where large hills dominate and scatter the canopy. While increased light in the forest means slightly less mobs, the steep cliffs lining this biome still make it dangerous to navigate on foot. Unlike regular roofed forests, no woodland mansions will spawn here. Roofed Forest M.png


Temperature: 0.8

Witch Huts, Oak Trees, Grass, Vines, Lily Pads, Clay, Mushrooms, Slimes, Huge Mushrooms[Bedrock Edition only], Fossils

A biome characterized by a mix of flat, dry areas around sea level and shallow pools of brackish green water with floating lily pads. Clay, sand, and dirt are commonly found at the bottom of these pools. Trees are often covered with dark green vines, and can be found growing out from the water. Mushrooms and sugar canes are very abundant. Witch huts generate exclusively in swamps. Slimes will also spawn naturally at night, most commonly on full moons, making this an especially dangerous biome at night. Temperature varies randomly within the biome, not affected by altitude, causing foliage and grass colors to vary.

In Bedrock Edition, huge mushrooms will also spawn in this biome, and the water is dark gray instead of blue. Visibility is also extremely low when the player is below the surface of the water


Swampland M

Temperature: 0.8

Swamp Trees, Vines, Lilypads, Water, Witches, Fossils

While there is no "Swampland Hills" biome, this uncommon biome could be considered the closest contender, since it is represented by areas where small hills rise in slopes of varying degrees, surrounded by flatter marshes. Witch huts do not generate in this biome, unlike the normal swampland biome. Swampland M.png


Temperature: 0.95

Jungle Trees, Jungle Temples, Ferns, Flowers, Vines, Ocelots, Cocoa Pods, Melons, Parrots

A very dense, but rather uncommon tropical biome. It features large jungle trees that can reach up to 31 blocks tall with 2×2 thick trunks. Oak trees are also common. The landscape is lush green and quite hilly, with many small lakes of water often nestled into deep valleys, sometimes above sea level. Leaves cover much of the forest floor—these "bush trees" have single-blocks of jungle wood for trunks, surrounded by oak leaves. When inside a jungle, the sky will become noticeably lighter. Vines are found alongside most blocks and may cover the surface of caves. Ocelots, jungle temples, melons, cocoa plants, and parrots can be found exclusively in this biome. Melons generate in small patches, similar to pumpkins. Jungle O' Trees.png

Jungle M

Temperature: 0.95

Jungle Trees, Jungle Temples, Ferns, Flowers, Vines, Ocelots, Cocoa Pods, Melons

Much more mountainous version of the normal jungle, with foliage so thick that the ground is barely visible. A very resource-demanding biome. One may confuse this with the jungle hills biome at first glance, but the hills in the jungle M biome tend to be sharper and more erratic. Due to the combined height of the terrain and of the tall jungle trees, trees in the jungle M frequently reach into and go above the clouds. Extremely dense foliage and treacherous terrain make this a very difficult biome to navigate, especially at night. Jungle M.png

Jungle Edge

Temperature: 0.95

Jungle Trees, Ferns, Melons, Flowers, Vines, Ocelots, Parrots

This biome represents a smooth transition between jungles and other biomes. In stark contrast to the wild and overgrown vegetation of the jungle biomes, the jungle edge consists of a few small and isolated jungle trees, with groups of melons here and there. The terrain is relatively flat, with some small rises in elevation. All mobs that spawn in the jungle, including parrots and ocelots, will also spawn in the jungle edge. Jungle Edge.png

Jungle Edge M

Temperature: 0.95

Jungle Trees, Oak Trees, Grass, Flowers, Vines, Melons, Ocelots, Parrots

One of rarest biomes in the game. The jungle edge M is difficult to find because it requires that a jungle edge generate against a jungle M (an already rare biome in itself), which does not happen often since jungle M biomes are usually fully encompassed by normal jungles. Because of the strict conditions required to generate, this biome is often no more than 100 blocks in length and/or width, making it one of the smallest biomes as well. It features slightly steeper hills than normal, with very few to no tall trees. Like the normal jungle edge, jungle mobs like parrots will also spawn in this biome. Melons are also in abundance - a sort of gift to the player who manages to find this exceedingly rare biome. Jungle Edge M.png


Temperature: 0.5

Water, Sand, Clay, Sugar Cane

A biome that consists of water blocks that form an elongated, curving shape similar to a real river. Unlike real rivers, however, they have no current. Rivers cut through terrain or separate the main biomes. They attempt to join up with ocean on the other side, but will sometimes loop around to the same area of ocean. Rarely, they can have no connection to the ocean and form a circle. They have a dull green grass hue, much like the ocean, and trace amounts of oak trees tend to generate there as well. Rivers are also a reliable source of clay. These biomes are good for fishing. River.pngRiver (With Correct Grass Hue).png


Temperature: 0.8

Sand, Gravel, Water, Sugar Cane

Generated where oceans meet other biomes, beaches are composed primarily of sand. Beaches penetrate the landscape, removing the original blocks and placing in sand blocks. Some beaches generate with gravel instead of sand. These are also useful for fishing. Passive mobs do not spawn on beaches. For the history of beaches, see the Beach page. Minecraft Beaches.png

Mushroom Island

Temperature: 0.9

Mushrooms, Huge Mushrooms, Mycelium, Mooshrooms, No Hostile Mobs

This rare biome consists of a mixture of flat landscape and steep hills and has mycelium instead of grass as its surface. However, if you do place down grass, it is a very bright green color, not unlike that of the jungle. Mushroom islands are most often adjacent to an ocean and are often found isolated from other biomes, and they are typically a few hundred blocks wide. It is one of the only biomes where huge mushrooms can generate naturally, and where mushrooms can grow in full sunlight.

Technically no mobs other than mooshrooms spawn naturally in this biome, including the usual night-time hostile mobs. This also applies to caves, abandoned mine shafts, and other dark structures, meaning exploring underground is supposedly safe. However, mob spawners will still spawn mobs, and the player will also still be able to breed animals and spawn mobs using eggs.

Mushroomisland.pngMushroom Island Biome.png

Mushroom Island Shore

Temperature: 0.9

Mushrooms, Huge Mushrooms, Mycelium, Mooshrooms, No Hostile Mobs

Mushroom shores represent the transition between mushroom islands and the ocean, forming long strips along the edge of the mushroom island as a sort of beach, hence the name. The terrain of this biome is much flatter and shallower in elevation than the main mushroom island biome, though it contains many of the same features, such as a mycelium surface layer, huge mushrooms, and lack of hostile mobs. Mushroomislandshore.png

The End

Temperature: 0.5

End Stone, Endermen, Obsidian, End Crystals, Ender Dragon, Chorus Plants, End Cities, Shulkers

This biome is used to generate the End. The ender dragon, and large amounts of endermen, spawn in this biome. Most of the End's structure is provided by the dimension itself rather than the biome. It does not rain or snow in this biome unlike the other low temperature biomes. The outer islands in the End can be accessed using the End gateway portal after the ender dragon has been defeated. These contain endermen, chorus plants and End cities. End cities are the only place where shulkers naturally spawn. If the biome is used for a superflat world, the sky will be dark gray and an ender dragon will spawn at 0,0 coordinates in the Overworld. Only endermen will spawn at night. Beds will explode if used in this biome.

TheEnd 1.9.pngSmallEndIslands.png
End (Biome Part).pngNew End 15w31b.png

Dry/Warm biomes

In these biomes, it neither rains nor snows at all, but the sky will still turn overcast during inclement weather. The foliage and grass is an olive color, except mesa biomes, which have brown grass.

Biome Name and ID Name Features Description Images


Temperature: 2.0

Sand, Cacti, Dead Bushes, Sandstone, Sugar Cane, Desert wells, Desert Temples, NPC Villages, Gold Rabbits, Fossils

A barren and inhospitable biome consisting mostly of sand dunes, dead bushes, and cacti. Sandstone, and sometimes fossils, are found underneath the sand. The only passive mobs to spawn naturally in deserts are gold rabbits, their coloring well-camouflaged against the sand. At night, husks usually spawn in the place of normal zombies; the lack of visual obstruction makes hostile mobs highly visible. Sugar cane can be found if the desert is next to an ocean or river biome. Desert villages, desert wells and desert temples are found exclusively in this biome. This biome sometimes appear as edge of mesa biome.
Desert.png1.8 Biomes Desert.png

Desert M

Temperature: 2.0

Sand, Cacti, Water, Sugar Canes, Gold Rabbits, Fossils

Unlike in normal deserts, patches of water can be found in this biome, and the terrain is slightly more rough. Although desert wells can be found, desert temples and villages will not generate in this biome.
Desert M.png


Temperature: 1.2

Acacia Trees, Tall Grass, NPC Villages, Horses, Cows, Sheep, Llamas

A relatively flat and dry biome with a dull-brown grass color and scattered acacia trees, although oak trees may generate now and then. Tall grass covers the landscape. Villages can generate in this biome, which are constructed almost entirely of acacia building materials. It is the only biome where both horses and llamas spawn naturally.
Savanna Acacia.png

Savanna M

Temperature: 1.1

Acacia Trees, Coarse Dirt, Tall Grass

Unlike the flat and calm terrain of the savanna biome, the chaotic terrain of this uncommon variant is wracked by gigantic mountains covered in coarse dirt. The mountains in the savanna M biome are extremely steep, jutting out at 90 degree angles, making it almost impossible to climb. On top of that, they dwarf the extreme hills in height - they can rise far above the clouds, and even to the world height limit, without using the Amplified world type. Massive waterfalls and lavafalls are quite common here. The unforgiving terrain means villages will not generate in this biome.
Savanna M updated.png


Temperature: 2.0

Dead Bushes, Terracotta, 6 colors of Terracotta, Red Sand, Cacti, Red Sandstone, Above ground mineshafts, Gold ore

A rare biome wherein large mounds of terracotta and stained terracotta will generate. Red sand will also generate here instead of regular sand, with occasional cacti and dead bushes. No passive mobs will spawn in this biome, even if all other spawning conditions are met. Mineshafts will generate at a much higher altitude than normal - now and then one may come across a mineshaft jutting out of the slope of a mesa. Gold ore is also a much more frequent occurrence, since ore veins generate within mesas at a higher Y-level than the usual 32. The composition of this biome is useful when other sources of terracotta and gold are scarce. However, finding mesa biomes can be difficult due to their rarity. On the other hand, it offers great variety - there are a total of 6 variations of this biome to explore.

Mesa Cliff.png

Mesa (Bryce)

Temperature: 2.0

Red Sand, Cacti, Red Sandstone, Dead Bushes, Terracotta 6 colors of Terracotta

This rare biome generates unique terrain features that are similar to the structures in the real Bryce Canyon. Tall and narrow spires of colorful terracotta rise out of the floor of the canyon, which, like all other mesa variants, is covered in red sand.
Bryce Canyon.png

Mesa Plateau F

Temperature: 2.0

Oak trees, Dead Bushes, Dirt, Terracotta, 6 colors of Terracotta

One might not notice the subtle transition from the normal mesa plateau to this rare variation, were it were not for the layer of grass blocks and the small forests of oak trees that generate atop these plateaus. The color of the grass and leaves is a dull green-brown hue, giving it a dried and dead appearance. These trees are a rare source of wood when living in the otherwise barren and lifeless mesa.
Mesa F Plateau.png

Mesa Plateau F M

Temperature: 2.0

Oak trees, Dead Bushes, Dirt, Terracotta, 6 colors of Terracotta

This biome features grass and oak trees on top of plateaus, much like its counterpart. However, the plateaus that generate here are generally smaller, allowing far less foliage to generate. The terrain is more erratic in general, and can be compared to that of the similar mesa plateau M biome, having an old and eroded appearance.
Mesa F M Plateau.png

36, 39

Temperature: Same as their respective base biomes. These biomes are similar to the hills biomes, but only generate within savanna and mesa biomes, and are flattened at the top, much like real-life plateaus. They come to rest at an elevation of about 20 to 30 blocks above sea level. One may discover the entrance to a mineshaft within the tall slopes of a mesa plateau.
Mesa Plateau updated.pngSavanna Plateau.png

Plateau M
164, 167

Temperature: Same as their respective base biomes. Two rare variants of the plateau biomes, which are variants themselves. However, neither of these biomes closely resemble their counterparts.

Compared to the average mesa plateau, this rare variant features more variable terrain and smaller plateaus, as if a larger plateau was weathered down over time.

The terrain of the savanna plateau M biome is much less tame than its normal counterpart. It features incredibly large and steep mountains that jut out of the terrain, similar to the savanna M biome, albeit slightly smaller and gentler in comparison.

Mesa Plateau M updated.pngSavanna Plateau M.png

Hell (The Nether)

Netherrack, Glowstone, Soul Sand, Nether Quartz, Ghasts, Blazes, Zombie Pigmen, Nether Fortresses, Wither Skeletons, Lava, Magma Blocks

This is the biome used to generate the Nether. Within this biome spawn mobs such as ghasts, packs of zombie pigmen and the occasional magma cubes and endermen. Certain structures, such as Nether quartz, glowstone veins, and Nether fortresses will only generate in the Nether. While water cannot be placed in the Nether dimension, ice can, and water lakes (and other Overworld structures) can still generate if the Nether is used in a superflat preset. Beds will explode if used in this biome.

The Nether.png

Neutral and other biomes

These biomes are usually covered with water and have very little land exposed. Either that, or they have many variants of themselves which are also variants of other non-neutral biomes.

Biome Name and ID Features Description Images


Temperature: 0.5

Water, Gravel, Squid

A large, open biome made entirely of water going up to y=63, with underwater relief on the sea floor, such as small mountains and plains, usually including gravel. Oceans typically extend under 3,000 blocks in any direction, around 60% of the Overworld's surface is covered in Ocean. Small islands with infrequent vegetation can be found in oceans. Passive mobs are unable to spawn on these islands, but hostiles can. Squid spawn in the water, and in Bedrock Edition, ocean biomes are the only place where squid can be found. Cavern entrances can be found infrequently at the bottom of the ocean. In the Console versions, they surround the edges of the map.
1.8 Biomes Ocean.png

Deep Ocean

Temperature: 0.5

Water, Gravel, Clay, Squid, Guardians, Elder Guardians, Ocean monuments

A variation of the Ocean biome. In deep ocean biomes, the ocean can exceed 30 blocks in depth, making it twice as deep as the normal ocean. In contrast to default oceans, the ground is mainly covered with gravel. Ocean monuments generate in deep oceans. Therefore, deep oceans are the only place where guardians naturally spawn, and where sponge and prismarine blocks naturally generate.

The Void

Temperature: 0.0

Stone, Cobblestone, Void

A completely empty biome that generates only a single structure: a 33×33 stone platform with a single block of cobblestone in the center. No mobs (passive or hostile) can spawn without spawn eggs, monster spawners or commands. Can only be accessed through The Void superflat preset. VoidBiome.png

13, 17, 18, 19, 22, 28, 31, 33, 156, 161

Temperature: Same as their respective base biomes. Hills are generated within certain biomes (including some of their variants) and are referred in the F3 menu with Hills or Mountains added to their name.

This includes: Forest Hills, Taiga Hills, Cold Taiga Hills, Jungle Hills, Desert Hills, Birch Forest Hills (M), Mega Taiga Hills, Redwood Taiga Hills M, and Ice Mountains.

Most hills are gentle rolling slopes on which the usual biome terrain generates, with some sharper cliffs here and there. Ice Mountains are usually taller, with height comparable to Extreme Hills biomes, and has a lower chance of spawning passive mobs during world generation than other biomes (7% versus 10%).

Redwood Taiga Hills M are a special case, however. The game code sets the values setBaseHeight and setHeightVariation in order to define a "hilly" biome, but these values are the same for the Redwood Taiga Hills M and its non-hill variant (Mega Spruce Taiga), meaning there is absolutely no terrain difference between the two biomes.

Redwood Hills.pngDesertHills.png

Unused biomes

These biomes don't generate in default worlds, but they can be accessed using the Customized world type.

Biome Name and ID Features Description Images

Frozen Ocean

Temperature: 0.0

Ice, Water, Gravel, Squid

This biome is a typical ocean, with a gravel seabed and squid swimming about. However, the top layer of the water is covered by ice. It generates only where cold biomes meet the ocean. Warmer rivers occasionally run through it.

Extreme Hills Edge

Temperature: 0.2

Grass, Dirt, Stone, Pigs, Sheep, Cows, Wolves, Spruce trees, Oak trees, Snow (occasionally)

Similar to the jungle edge biome, the extreme hills edge generates exclusively at the edge of extreme hills biomes (or any variant) in order to smooth the transition between biomes. While the terrain is lower and gentler in nature, some areas may reach high enough to be covered by snow. Extreme Hills Edge.png

Biome IDs

Each type of biome has its own biome number, shown in the following table. These biome numbers are used when creating a customized superflat world. Main biomes have an ID number from 0 to 127, while biome variations normally have an ID number of 128 + <original biome number>. Two biomes, FrozenOcean (10) and Extreme Hills Edge (20) are no longer naturally generated.

Icon Dec Hex ID Name Biome Color

0 0 minecraft:ocean Ocean 000070

1 1 minecraft:plains Plains 8DB360

2 2 minecraft:desert Desert FA9418

3 3 minecraft:extreme_hills Extreme Hills 606060

4 4 minecraft:forest Forest 056621

5 5 minecraft:taiga Taiga 0B6659

6 6 minecraft:swampland Swampland 07F9B2

7 7 minecraft:river River 0000FF

8 8 minecraft:hell Hell FF0000

9 9 minecraft:sky The End 8080FF

10 A minecraft:frozen_ocean FrozenOcean 9090A0

11 B minecraft:frozen_river FrozenRiver A0A0FF

12 C minecraft:ice_flats Ice Plains FFFFFF

13 D minecraft:ice_mountains Ice Mountains A0A0A0

14 E minecraft:mushroom_island MushroomIsland FF00FF

15 F minecraft:mushroom_island_shore MushroomIslandShore A000FF

16 10 minecraft:beaches Beach FADE55

17 11 minecraft:desert_hills DesertHills D25F12

18 12 minecraft:forest_hills ForestHills 22551C

19 13 minecraft:taiga_hills TaigaHills 163933

20 14 minecraft:smaller_extreme_hills Extreme Hills Edge 72789A

21 15 minecraft:jungle Jungle 537B09

22 16 minecraft:jungle_hills JungleHills 2C4205

23 17 minecraft:jungle_edge JungleEdge 628B17

24 18 minecraft:deep_ocean Deep Ocean 000030

25 19 minecraft:stone_beach Stone Beach A2A284

26 1A minecraft:cold_beach Cold Beach FAF0C0

27 1B minecraft:birch_forest Birch Forest 307444

28 1C minecraft:birch_forest_hills Birch Forest Hills 1F5F32

29 1D minecraft:roofed_forest Roofed Forest 40511A

30 1E minecraft:taiga_cold Cold Taiga 31554A

31 1F minecraft:taiga_cold_hills Cold Taiga Hills 243F36

32 20 minecraft:redwood_taiga Mega Taiga 596651

33 21 minecraft:redwood_taiga_hills Mega Taiga Hills 545F3E

34 22 minecraft:extreme_hills_with_trees Extreme Hills+ 507050

35 23 minecraft:savanna Savanna BDB25F

36 24 minecraft:savanna_rock Savanna Plateau A79D64

37 25 minecraft:mesa Mesa D94515

38 26 minecraft:mesa_rock Mesa Plateau F B09765

39 27 minecraft:mesa_clear_rock Mesa Plateau CA8C65

127 7F minecraft:the_void The Void
Icon Dec Hex ID Name Biome Color

129 81 minecraft:mutated_plains Sunflower Plains B5DB88

130 82 minecraft:mutated_desert Desert M FFBC40

131 83 minecraft:mutated_extreme_hills Extreme Hills M 888888

132 84 minecraft:mutated_forest Flower Forest 6A7425

133 85 minecraft:mutated_taiga Taiga M 596651

134 86 minecraft:mutated_swampland Swampland M 2FFFDA

140 8C minecraft:mutated_ice_flats Ice Plains Spikes B4DCDC

149 95 minecraft:mutated_jungle Jungle M 7BA331

151 97 minecraft:mutated_jungle_edge Jungle Edge M 8AB33F

155 9B minecraft:mutated_birch_forest Birch Forest M 589C6C

156 9C minecraft:mutated_birch_forest_hills Birch Forest Hills M 47875A

157 9D minecraft:mutated_roofed_forest Roofed Forest M 687942

158 9E minecraft:mutated_taiga_cold Cold Taiga M 597D72

160 A0 minecraft:mutated_redwood_taiga Mega Spruce Taiga 6B5F4C

161 A1 minecraft:mutated_redwood_taiga_hills Redwood Taiga Hills M 6D7766

162 A2 minecraft:mutated_extreme_hills_with_trees Extreme Hills+ M 789878

163 A3 minecraft:mutated_savanna Savanna M E5DA87

164 A4 minecraft:mutated_savanna_rock Savanna Plateau M CFC58C

165 A5 minecraft:mutated_mesa Mesa (Bryce) FF6D3D

166 A6 minecraft:mutated_mesa_rock Mesa Plateau F M D8BF8D

167 A7 minecraft:mutated_mesa_clear_rock Mesa Plateau M F2B48D

Biome colors

Biome colors template for 1.7.2 and above.

The temperature and rainfall values of a biome are used when determining the colors of grass, foliage (excluding the stalks of flowers), and other features such as water and the sky.

A biome's rainfall value is typically a value from 0.0 to 1.0, and - as stated above - a biome's temperature starts at a given value at sea level (e.g. 2.0 for Desert or -0.5 for Cold Taiga) and decreases by 0.00166667 for each meter above sea level.

Biome grass and foliage colors are selected from two 256x256 colormap images: grass.png and foliage.png. Both colormaps, shown to the right, can be found in assets\minecraft\textures\colormap. The grass.png colormap sets the colors for the grass block top and sides (along with other types of grass, such as tall grass, ferns, double tall grass, etc.). Meanwhile, the foliage.png colormap sets the colors for tree leaves (with the exception of spruce and birch).

Biome colormaps use a triangular gradient by default. However, only the colors in the lower-left half of the image are used, even though the upper-right side of foliage.png is colored. Furthermore, as shown in the template image to the left, only select few pixels are considered when the colormap is read by the game, and are determined by the code below.

The adjusted temperature and adjusted rainfall values (recognized as AdjTemp and AdjRainfall in the code, respectively) are used when determining which biome color to select from the colormap. Treating the bottom-right corner of the colormap as Temperature = 0.0 and Rainfall = 0.0, the adjusted temperature increases to 1.0 along the X-axis, and the adjusted rainfall increases to 1.0 along the Y-axis. The values used to retrieve the colors are computed as follows:

 AdjTemp = clamp( Temperature, 0.0, 1.0 )
 AdjRainfall = clamp( Rainfall, 0.0, 1.0 ) * AdjTemp

"clamp" limits the range of the temperature and rainfall to 0.0-1.0. The clamped rainfall value is then multiplied by the 0.0-1.0 adjusted temperature value, which brings its value to be inside the lower left triangle. Some biomes' ranges are shown in the template above; the multiplication makes all the line segments point towards the lower right corner.

At borders between or among biomes, the colors of the block and its eight neighbors are computed and the average is used for the final block color.

Exact temperature and rainfall values for biomes can be found in various projects, e.g. this biome code.

Hard-coded colors

Certain biome colors are hard-coded, which means they are locked into the Minecraft code and are not retrievable from any texture file. Thus, they cannot be modified without the use of external tools, such as MCPatcher/OptiFine, that support the use of custom colormaps.

Swampland color

Swampland temperature, which starts at 0.8, is not affected by altitude. Rather, a Perlin noise function is used to gradually vary the temperature of the swampland. When this temperature goes below -0.1, a lush green color is used (0x4C763C) otherwise it is set to a sickly brown (0x6A7039). In addition, the color of the water in swamplands is always multiplied by a very light green tinge (0xE0FFAE).

Roofed forest color

The roofed forest biomes' grass color is retrieved normally, then averaged with a dark green color (0x28340A) to produce the final color.

Mesa color

The color of the sky in two different biomes.

All mesa biomes' grass and foliage have hard-coded colors, which are two tan colors (0x90814D and 0x9E814D respectively). These are not modifiable by grass.png and foliage.png, and are unaffected by temperature.

Other colors

Several other biome colors are set into the game and currently require external tools in order to be changed. This includes blocks such as birch and spruce leaves and water (which have a hard-coded overlay set onto them), and other features such as the sky and fog.


Icon Achievement In-game description Actual requirements (if different) Availability Xbox points earned Trophy type (PS)
Xbox PS Bedrock Nintendo

Adventuring TimeDiscover 17 of the 40 different biomesVisit any 17 biomes. Does not have to be in a single world.YesYesYesWii U, Switch40GSilver




Icon Advancement In-game description Parent Actual requirements (if different) Internal ID
Adventuring TimeDiscover every biomeSweet dreamsVisit these 36 biomes. Other biomes may also be visited, but are ignored for the advancement.minecraft:adventure/adventuring_time


See also: Biome/Before Beta 1.8
A very old image of biomes work-in-progress. "To the right of the player is a taiga, to the left is either a forest, or woods, I can’t remember. In the distance is probably tundra." ~ Notch
The biomes graph from Notch, prior to beta 1.8. Notice the chicken scratch handwriting, as Notch was working quick to try to get the biomes update out.
The old biomes graph with linear axes.
1.0.4 Added Winter Mode. Maps now have a snowy or grassy theme randomly determined when creating the world.
1.2.0 Added biomes; they were rain forest, seasonal forest, forest, shrubland, taiga, tundra, savanna, plains, swampland, desert, and frozen desert.
World saves remained unchanged, other than a change in the hue of the grass. If the player moves into ungenerated chunks, the new biomes would generate.
1.6 Added the Sky Dimension with its own biome. It could only be viewed through the use of mods and hacks.
August 18, 2011Notch tweeted a screenshot of a revamped river biome.
1.8 Biomes got an overhaul, removing some biomes, such as the tundra and the taiga, and others replaced with nine fractal-based biomes that were a mix of the previous biomes and new biomes. See here for more details.
Official release
1.0.0 Re-added tundra (as ice plains) and added Mushroom Islands.
1.1 Re-added snow in taigas, added hills and beaches.
Smoothed color transitions between biomes – swampland grass, foliage and water smoothly transition into other biomes.
1.2.1 January 18, 2012Jens Bergensten tweeted a teaser screenshot of a new jungle biome.
January 19, 2012He tweeted another jungle screenshot, showcasing the bright green foliage.
12w03a Added jungle biome.
12w07a The Anvil file format was introduced and it allows for biomes to be stored in the world data. In contrast, the Region file format relies on the seed to dynamically calculate biome placement. This would cause biome placement in older worlds to change when the biome generation code was changed. With the current Anvil format, the biome data is stored along with the rest of the world data, meaning it will not change after the world is generated and can be edited by third-party map-editing tools. Furthermore, "edge" biomes allow for biomes to continue extend beyond the edge chunks of an old world. This allows for smooth transitions in world generation after the generation code changes in an update.
1.3.1 Hills in forests and deserts are taller.
1.6.1 13w17a Water lakes no longer generate in deserts.
1.7.2 August 2, 2013Jens tweeted the first image of the mesa biome. He jokingly referred to them as "disco mountains."
August 7, 2013Jens tweeted the first image of a mega taiga, unofficially dubbed the Redwood Forest. The name was changed following 1.7's release.
August 9, 2013Jens tweeted the first image of a stone beach, which was then referred to as a "cliff" biome.
13w36a Mesa, mega taiga, roofed forest, birch forest, savanna, extreme hills+, deep ocean and snowless taiga biomes were added as well as variations for many of the biomes. Biomes were also separated by temperature, and snowing was added to extreme hills.
Biomes will attempt to avoid getting placed next to a biome that is too different from itself, temperature-wise.
The frozen ocean and extreme hills edge biomes no longer generate naturally.
Biome-hopping achievement "Adventuring Time" added, but it was broken until 1.8 making the goal of getting all achievements impossible in 1.7.
13w38b Marsh-like areas no longer generate in swamp biomes.
13w39a Red sand now generates in mesa biomes and their variants.
13w43a Savannas and roofed forest biomes now generate with new logs and leaves.
1.8 14w17a The End's biome name is now "The End" instead of "Sky".
Adventuring Time is now available without commands. Before, the 38 biomes had to be visited without visiting any other biomes, which made the achievement unavailable because the End has to be visited for its prerequisite, The End?. The “no other biomes” restriction is now lifted.
Visiting the frozen ocean and extreme hills edge biomes, which no longer generate since 13w36a, is no longer required for Adventuring Time.
14w26a Marsh-like areas generate again in swamp biomes.
14w32a Red sandstone now generates below red sand in mesa biomes and their variants.
1.9 15w37a Add new biome "The Void", which is used in Superflat preset "The Void".
1.10 16w20a Plains and sunflower plains now have some trees (5% of chunks). 13 large oaks, 23 normal oaks.
Ice plains, ice plains spikes and ice mountains don't spawn passive mobs other than rabbits and the new polar bears anymore.
In mesa biomes, terracotta no longer generates more than 15 blocks deep, if the mesa is more than 15 blocks above sea level. In addition to the normal 2 veins of gold ore below Y=32, now attempts to generate 20 veins at elevations between 32 and 79. Also can generate dark oak abandoned mineshafts above ground.
1.13 18w06a The outer islands of the End biome are now divided up into four separate biomes: The End - Floating Islands, The End - Medium island, The End - High island, and The End - Barren island.
Pocket Edition Alpha
0.9.0 build 1 All biomes as of PC version 1.7.2 have been added. These include: Jungles, mesa, plains, roofed forests, savannas, taiga, extreme hills, mushroom islands, flower forest, mega taiga, mega spruce taiga, swampland, desert, forests, and deep ocean.
0.9.5 Added bryce mesa, extreme hills +, and jungle M.
0.10.0 build 1 Mesa biomes have gold at every elevation and can generate mine shafts on the surface.
Water in swamps is tinted dark gray.
Huge mushrooms generate in swamps
0.11.0 build 1 Added birch forest M, birch forest hills M, extreme hills M, and extreme hills+ M.
build 8 Changed the default biome.
build 10 Increased the amount of gravel on extreme hills M biome.
0.12.1 build 1 Added the Nether biome.
build 10 Leaves coloring shaders are now only used when the color for a biome actually changes.
0.16.0 The biomes can now be viewed on maps based on the grass color.
Pocket Edition
1.0 Added End biome.
Bedrock Edition
1.2 Added snow to extreme hills.
Legacy Console Edition
TU5CU11.00Patch 1Added swampland, ice plains, extreme hills and ocean biomes
Removed rain forest, seasonal forest, savanna, shrubland and taiga.
TU7Re-added tundra (as ice plains) and added Mushroom Islands.
TU9Re-added beaches and snow in taigas, added hills.
Smoothed color transitions between biomes – swampland grass, foliage and water smoothly transition into other biomes.
TU12Added jungle biome
TU141.04Hills in forests and deserts are taller.
TU19CU71.12Water lakes no longer generate in deserts.
TU31CU191.22Patch 3Added mesa, mega taiga, roofed forest, birch forest, forest, savanna, extreme hills+, deep ocean, snowless taiga and 20 technical biomes.
Changed generation of marsh-like areas in swamp and extreme hills biomes.


Issues relating to “Biome” are maintained on the issue tracker. Report issues there.


  • The term biome is analogous to its scientific usage: in real life, a biome is climatically and geographically defined by distinctive communities of plants, animals and soil organisms supported by similar climatic conditions. They are often referred to as ecosystems.[2][3]
  • The only fictional biomes are the Nether (Hell), the End and those with huge mushrooms. All the others are entirely or almost entirely based on real-life counterparts.


Sunrises and Sunsets


See also

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