Smelting

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The furnace interface.

Smelting is a method of producing refined goods. It has the same idea as crafting: a player supplies acceptable ingredients, and receives a corresponding output. However, smelting utilizes furnaces, blast furnaces, or smokers, which have a unique interface: one input field for the object to be heated, a secondary input field for the fuel, and one output field for the final smelted product.

For example, two saplings (fuel) could be used to smelt one wood (input) into one charcoal (output). Raw food items can also be cooked using a campfire (without giving experience), while smokers and blast furnaces can smelt certain types of items twice as fast as usual at the cost of being unable to smelt any other items.

Usage and mechanics[edit]



The smelting interface.

To smelt with a furnace, an input material and a fuel must be placed into the top-left and bottom-left slots of it, respectively. The furnace begins to smelt on its own and continues to work if the menu is closed and the player leaves. The player can tell whether a furnace is working or not by seeing if the furnace is lit and the fire particle effects are appearing or not. When the furnace begins to smelt, it consumes one piece of fuel and the fire gauge fills. Once a piece of fuel begins burning, it cannot be stopped, unless the furnace is broken. While the piece of fuel burns, the fire gauge slowly decreases until it is gone, and the process repeats with the next piece of fuel. When all fuel is exhausted with material remaining in the input slot, the furnace stops, and the item is not smelted. If the input material is exhausted with fuel remaining, the fire gauge continues decreasing, wasting the remaining burn time left for the piece of fuel being burned, but no further fuel is burned if the input slot remains empty.

As items smelt, an arrow icon represents the smelting progress. Each smelting operation takes 10 seconds. When it completes, the smelted item is added into the output field. If the furnace runs out of fuel before the arrow is filled up, then the input is not smelted and the process rewinds at double speed.

If the player travels far enough to unload the chunk containing a smelting furnace, the smelting process pauses until the player returns. Smelting also pauses if a player leaves the dimension in which the furnace is located. If the player sleeps in a bed while a furnace is smelting items, the furnace's progress remains the same as if the bed had not been used and no additional time had passed. This is because when a player sleeps in a bed, no time actually passes; the game simply sets the time of day to morning.

If a player removes a smelted item from the output field, that player instantly receives experience for all the items smelted in that furnace, even items that had already been pulled out by a hopper.

Items can similarly be smelted in a blast furnace or smoker. The usage and interface for smelting with both blocks is the same as those of a normal furnace; however, blast furnaces can be used only to smelt ores and metal tools, and smokers can be used only to smelt food items. Both blocks smelt items twice as fast as regular furnaces do. Some items (such as logs) can be smelted only in a basic furnace.

Using a campfire[edit]

Items can also be smelted using a campfire. To do so, the player must use a lit campfire, with any of the food items listed in the Recipes section in their hand. Fuel is not required; the campfire is able to cook items infinitely on its own. Smelting an item takes 30 seconds, three times the amount of time it would take if a furnace were used instead. A campfire can hold up to four items at the same time. Once the campfire has finished cooking an item, it emerges from the campfire as an item entity. No experience points are granted.

Recipes[edit]

Food[edit]

Product Ingredient Exp Description

Cooked Porkchop

Raw Porkchop
0.35 Fills 8 (🍗🍗🍗🍗), while raw fills 3 (🍗🍗).

Steak

Raw Beef
0.35 Fills 8 (🍗🍗🍗🍗), while raw fills 3 (🍗🍗).

Cooked Chicken

Raw Chicken
0.35 Fills 6 (🍗🍗🍗), while raw fills 2 (🍗) and has a 30% chance to give the Hunger status effect.

Cooked Cod

Raw Cod
0.35 Fills 5 (🍗🍗🍗), while raw fills 2 (🍗).

Cooked Salmon

Raw Salmon
0.35 Fills 6 (🍗🍗🍗), while raw fills 2 (🍗).

Baked Potato

Potato
0.35 Fills 5 (🍗🍗🍗), while raw fills 1 (🍗).

Cooked Mutton

Raw Mutton
0.35 Fills 6 (🍗🍗🍗), while raw fills 2 (🍗).

Cooked Rabbit

Raw Rabbit
0.35 Fills 5 (🍗🍗🍗), while raw fills 3 (🍗🍗).

Dried Kelp

Kelp
0.1 Fills 1 (🍗), while normal kelp is inedible.

Processing ores and materials[edit]

Product Ingredient Exp Description

Iron Ingot

Iron Ore
0.7 Used to craft various items, including blast furnaces, anvils, iron blocks, iron nuggets, rails, buckets, cauldrons, chains, compasses, crossbows, flint-and-steels, heavy-weighted pressure plates, hoppers, iron trapdoors, minecarts, pistons, shears, shields, iron armor, iron tools, stonecutters and tripwire hooks.

Gold Ingot

Gold Ore
1 Used to craft various items, including netherite ingots, gold blocks, golden apples, gold nuggets, clocks, golden armor, golden tools, powered rails and light-weighted pressure plates.

Netherite Scrap

Ancient Debris
2 Used to craft netherite ingots, which can be used to upgrade diamond items.

Glass

Sand
0.1 Used to make transparent structures. Also used to craft glass panes, glass bottles, stained glass, end crystals, daylight detectors, and beacons.

Stone

Cobblestone
0.1 Used as a building material. Also used for crafting stone pressure plates, stone buttons, stone bricks, redstone comparators, and redstone repeaters. Also used for smelting into smooth stone.

Smooth Sandstone

Sandstone
0.1 Used as a building material. Also used for crafting smooth sandstone slabs and stairs.

Smooth Red Sandstone

Red Sandstone
0.1 Used as a building material. Also used for crafting smooth red sandstone slabs and stairs.

Smooth Stone

Stone
0.1 Used as a building material. Also used for crafting smooth stone slabs and blast furnace.

Smooth Quartz

Block of Quartz
0.1 Used as a building material.

Brick

Clay Ball
0.3 Used to make bricks and flower pots.

Nether Brick

Netherrack
0.1 Used to make nether bricks.

Cracked Nether Bricks

Nether Bricks
0.1 Decoration block.

Terracotta

Clay
0.35 Decoration block. Also used to make dyed terracotta.

Cracked Stone Bricks

Stone Bricks
0.1 Decoration block. Also spawns in strongholds.

Glazed Terracotta

Dyed Terracotta
0.1 Decoration block.

Green Dye

Cactus
1‌[Java Edition only]
0.2‌[Bedrock Edition only]
Used as a dye.

Charcoal

Log

Stripped Log

Wood

Stripped Wood
0.15 Used to craft torches and fire charges and as fuel in a furnace or in a minecart with furnace. Ingredient must be a log or wood, not sticks, planks, or stems.

Popped Chorus Fruit

Chorus Fruit
0.1 Used to make purpur blocks and end rod.

Sponge

Wet Sponge
0.15 Used to soak up water. Drying a sponge allows it to be reused. If an empty bucket is in the fuel slot when a wet sponge is smelted, the bucket is filled with water.

Lime Dye

Sea Pickle
0.1 Used as a dye.

Gem ores[edit]

The following ores can be smelted, but in these cases this is not necessary to obtain the product. All of these ores yield their product freely when mined with an appropriate pickaxe, and give far more experience than when smelted (with the exception of nether gold ore, gives both more gold and more experience when smelted). The ore blocks themselves can be obtained only via the Silk Touch enchantment. Also, some of these ores may drop multiple items when mined normally, and all of them potentially drop even more when mined with a Fortune-enchanted pickaxe. Smelting these, however, always gives only a single unit of the product.

Product Ingredient Exp Description

Diamond

Diamond Ore
1 Used to craft various items, enchanting table and diamond blocks.
When normally mined drops 1 diamond and 3–7.

Lapis Lazuli

Lapis Lazuli Ore
0.2 Used to enchant items and craft blue dyes and lapis lazuli blocks.
When normally mined drops 4–8 lapis lazuli and 2–5.

Redstone Dust

Redstone Ore
0.3 Used in crafting, lighting redstone torches, brewing, redstone circuits, and to craft redstone blocks,.
When normally mined drops 4–5 redstone and 1–5.

Coal

Coal Ore
0.1 Used as a fuel, as lighting torches, and to craft coal blocks.
When normally mined drops 1 coal and 0–2.

Emerald

Emerald Ore
1 Used for trading and to craft emerald blocks.
When normally mined drops 1 emerald and 3–7.

Gold Ingot

Nether Gold Ore
1 Used to craft various items, among them netherite ingots, gold blocks, golden apples, gold nuggets, clocks, powered rails, and light weighted pressure plates.

Nether Quartz

Nether Quartz Ore
0.2 Used to craft various items and quartz blocks.
When normally mined drops 1 nether quartz and 2–5.

Tools, weapons, and armor[edit]

Product Ingredient Exp Description

Iron Nugget


Tools, armor and horse armor made from iron; chainmail armor
0.1 Can be crafted into lanterns, or back into iron ingots.

Gold Nugget

Tools, armor and horse armor made from gold
0.1 Can be crafted into golden carrots, glistering melons, or back into gold ingots.

A note about fractional experience values: For fractional values, first multiply this value by the number of smelted items removed from the furnace, then award the player the whole-number part, and if there is a fractional part remaining, this represents the chance of an additional experience point.

  • For example, when smelting 1 coal ore and removing the coal, the value is 0.1, so this grants a 10% chance of getting 1 experience point.
  • Or, when smelting 5 sea pickles and removing all 5 lime dye, the value is 0.2 × 5 = 1, so this grants only 1 point.

Fuel[edit]

There are multiple fuels that can be used to smelt items. The type of fuel that should be used depends on the number of items in question.

For larger jobs, a single lava bucket or a block of coal can burn more items than can fit in the furnace—both input and output are limited to a stack of 64, but a block of coal burns 80 items, and lava can burn 100 items.

Items that can be used as fuel in furnaces[edit]

Fuel Burning time
(seconds)
[note 1]
Number of operations per fuel Number of operations per stack (64) of fuel
[note 2]
Seconds per log
[note 3]
Amount needed to burn a stack (64) of items Notes
Lava Bucket 1000
16:40
20000 ticks
100 100 None used 0.64 If a lava bucket is used as fuel, an empty bucket remains in the fuel slot.
Block of Coal 800
13:20
16000 ticks
80 5120 None used 0.8
Dried Kelp Block 200
3:20
4000 ticks
20 1280 None used 3.2
Blaze Rod 120
2:00
2400 ticks
12 768 None used 13
Coal 80
1:20
1600 ticks
8 512 None used 8
Charcoal 80
1:20
1600 ticks
8 512 68 47
(~68.57)
[note 4]
8
Any Boat 60
1200 ticks
6 6 48 10 23 [Java Edition only]
Any Boat 60
1200 ticks
6 6 34 27
(~34.29)
10 23 [Bedrock Edition only]
Scaffolding 60
1200 ticks
6 384 None used 10 13 [Bedrock Edition only]
Scaffolding 20
400 ticks
2 128 None used 32 [Java Edition only]
Any Log or Stripped Log[note 5] 15
300 ticks
1.5 96 15 42 23
Any Wood or Stripped Wood[note 5] 15
300 ticks
1.5 96 11.25 42 23
Any Planks[note 5] 15
300 ticks
1.5 96 60 42 23
Any Wooden Slab[note 5] 15
300 ticks
1.5 96 120 42 23 [Bedrock Edition only]
Any Wooden Slab[note 5] 7.5
150 ticks
0.75 48 60 85 13 [Java Edition only]
Any Wooden Stairs[note 5] 15
300 ticks
1.5 96 40 42 23
Any Wooden Pressure Plate[note 5] 15
300 ticks
1.5 96 30 42 23
Any Wooden Button[note 5] 15
300 ticks
1.5 96 60 42 23 [Bedrock Edition only]
Any Wooden Button[note 5] 5
100 ticks
0.5 32 20 128 [Java Edition only]
Any Wooden Trapdoor[note 5] 15
300 ticks
1.5 96 20 42 23
Any Fence Gate[note 5] 15
300 ticks
1.5 96 15 42 23
Any Wooden Fence[note 5] 15
300 ticks
1.5 96 36 42 23
Ladder 15
300 ticks
1.5 96 51 37
(~51.43)
42 23
Crafting Table 15
300 ticks
1.5 96 15 42 23
Cartography Table 15
300 ticks
1.5 96 15 42 23
Fletching Table 15
300 ticks
1.5 96 15 42 23
Smithing Table 15
300 ticks
1.5 96 15 42 23
Loom 15
300 ticks
1.5 96 15 42 23
Bookshelf 15
300 ticks
1.5 96 10 42 23
Lectern 15
300 ticks
1.5 96 6 42 23
Composter 15
300 ticks
1.5 96 17 17
(~17.14)
42 23
Chest 15
300 ticks
1.5 96 7.5 42 23
Trapped Chest 15
300 ticks
1.5 96 67
(~6.86)
42 23
Barrel 15
300 ticks
1.5 96 15 42 23 [Bedrock Edition only]
Barrel 15
300 ticks
1.5 96 47
(~8.57)
42 23 [Java Edition only]
Daylight Detector 15
300 ticks
1.5 96 40 42 23
Jukebox 15
300 ticks
1.5 96 7.5 42 23
Note Block 15
300 ticks
1.5 96 7.5 42 23
Any Mushroom Block 15
300 ticks
1.5 96 None used 42 23 [Bedrock Edition only]
Any Banner 15
300 ticks
1.5 24 120 42 23
Crossbow 15
300 ticks
1.5 1.5 26 23 42 23 [Java Edition only]
Crossbow 10
200 ticks
1 1 17 79
(17.7)
64 [Bedrock Edition only]
Bow 15
300 ticks
1.5 1.5 40 42 23 [Java Edition only]
Bow 10
200 ticks
1 1 26 23 64 [Bedrock Edition only]
Fishing Rod 15
300 ticks
1.5 1.5 40 42 23
Any Wooden Door[note 5] 10
200 ticks
1 64 20 64
Any Sign[note 5] 10
200 ticks
1 16 18 613
(~18.46)
64
Wooden Pickaxe 10
200 ticks
1 1 10 64
Wooden Shovel 10
200 ticks
1 1 20 64
Wooden Hoe 10
200 ticks
1 1 13 13 64
Wooden Axe 10
200 ticks
1 1 10 64
Wooden Sword 10
200 ticks
1 1 16 64
Bowl 10
200 ticks
1 64 53 13 64 [Bedrock Edition only]
Bowl 5
100 ticks
0.5 32 26 23 128 [Java Edition only]
Any Sapling 5
100 ticks
0.5 32 None used 128
Stick 5
100 ticks
0.5 32 40 128
Any Wool 5
100 ticks
0.5 32 None used 128 [Java Edition only]
Any Carpet 3.35
67 ticks
0.335 21.44 None used 191 367
(~191.04)
[Java Edition only]
Bamboo 2.5
50 ticks
0.25 16 None used 256
  1. All times given are for fuel burned in a furnace. When burned in a blast furnace or smoker, fuel is burned twice as fast but produces the same number of items.
  2. Items in red are not stackable, items in yellow only stack up to 16.
  3. Calculated as the burning time divided by the number of logs used to make one fuel. Items in red are not made entirely of wood.
  4. When using planks to smelt logs to charcoal.
  5. a b c d e f g h i j k l m n Nether wood variants do not burn in a furnace.

Hopper automation[edit]

Automated furnace

The smelting process can be automated with hoppers on the top and bottom of the furnace. For larger smelting jobs, a third hopper on the side of the furnace can feed in fuel and, in case of lava being used as fuel, any empty buckets come out of the bottom hopper. This automatically feeds and empties the furnace so that different materials can be smelted in the same batch with no loss.

Any experience from items smelted is saved even if the furnace is completely emptied by a hopper. If one cooked/smelted product item is later taken out of the furnace, the player receives experience for any items that were smelted.

Achievements[edit]

Icon Achievement In-game description Actual requirements (if different) Gamerscore earned Trophy type (PS)
Acquire HardwareSmelt iron ore in the furnace.Pick up an iron ingot from a furnace output.15GBronze
Delicious FishCatch and cook a fish!Pick up a cooked cod from a furnace output. Doesn't work if the furnace is hooked up to a hopper, as the player is not getting the item directly from the furnace.15GSilver
Pork ChopCook and eat a pork chop.10GBronze
Renewable EnergySmelt wood trunks using charcoal to make more charcoal.Smelt a wooden log with charcoal as the fuel.10GBronze
Rabbit SeasonCook and Eat Rabbit Meat15GBronze
Dry SpellDry a sponge in a furnace15GBronze
Super FuelPower a Furnace with Lava20GBronze

Advancements[edit]

Icon Advancement In-game description Parent Actual requirements (if different) Namespaced ID

Advancement-plain-raw.png

Acquire Hardware
Smelt an iron ingotGetting an UpgradeHave an iron ingot in your inventory.story/smelt_iron

Video[edit]

Note: this video is outdated, as it doesn't talk about blast furnaces, smokers or campfires, because this video was recorded before 1.14.

History[edit]

Java Edition Indev
0.312010-01-29Flint and steel can now be used to smelt ores and cook food.[1]
Minecraft Indev20100219Furnaces have been added to replace the cooking/smelting function of flint and steel.
20100223The first smeltable item has been added, cobblestone, which can be smelted into stone.
Java Edition
1.3.112w18aWooden tools now work in furnaces as one full furnace use.
12w22aSmelting various ores in furnaces now reward players with experience points.
When using lava for fuel, the player can now get the bucket back.
1.8?When a furnace runs out of fuel, the smelting progress now rewinds at double speed.
1.1318w06aThe smelting GUI now includes a recipe tab, which allows players to know how to smelt previously-smelted items, automatically fill in the item to be smelted and filter out the recipes to what they can make from their inventory.
Custom recipes are now loaded from data packs in data/(namespace)/recipes/(name).json.
Turning off the vanilla data pack now also removes all recipes.
18w07aDried kelp blocks have been added as a new fuel.
1.1418w43aAdded bamboo, which can now be used as a fuel.
Dead Bushes can now be used as a fuel, smelting .5 items.
18w45aAdded scaffolding, which can now be used as a fuel.
18w50aOres can now be smelted using a blast furnace and food using a smoker.
19w02aItems can now be smelted using a campfire.
1.1519w37aBoats used as fuel now smelt 6 items instead of 1.
Pocket Edition Alpha
v0.3.2Furnaces have been added, which means that every available block and item can now be gathered, crafted or smelted into (no more unlimited items).
v0.8.0?Wooden tools can now be used as fuel.
Lava buckets can now be placed to smelt items (100 items).
v0.11.0build 1Added boats and fishing rods, which can now be used as fuel.
v0.12.1build 1Added blaze rods, which can now be used as fuel.
v0.13.0build 1Added note blocks and daylight sensors, which can now be used as fuel.
0.16.0?The furnace's interface has been changed.
Pocket Edition
1.0.0alpha 0.17.0.1Added new furnace UI for classic UI.
Bedrock Edition
1.2.0beta 1.2.0.2Added jukeboxes and banners, which can now be used as fuel.
1.4.0beta 1.2.13.8Added stripped logs, which can now be used as fuel.
beta 1.2.14.2Added dried kelp blocks, which can now be used as fuel.
1.8.0beta 1.8.0.8Added bamboo and scaffolding, which can now be used as fuel.
1.10.0beta 1.10.0.3Dead bush can now be used as fuel.
1.11.0beta 1.11.0.1Items can now be smelted using a campfire.
Signs can now be used as fuel.
Ores can now be smelted using a blast furnace and food using a smoker.
New Nintendo 3DS Edition
1.1.06Smelting various ores in furnaces now rewards players with experience points.

Trivia[edit]

  • It takes 10 minutes and 40 seconds to smelt a stack of 64 items in a single furnace, although this time can be reduced by splitting the load between multiple furnaces or by smelting the items in a blast furnace or smoker.
  • Burning logs or wood with planks to make charcoal is over 4 times (×4.57) more efficient than using the log or wood itself as fuel. It is just over 114 times more efficient than using planks.
  • The most efficient fuel to make charcoal is charcoal itself.
  • The most efficient wood-only fuel in Bedrock edition is wooden slabs. Each log equals out to 8 wooden slabs (3 logs produce 12 planks that produce 24 slabs) that provide fuel for 12 items. Turning a log into charcoal provides only enough fuel for 8 items plus the loss of fuel needed to smelt the logs.
  • Turning coal into blocks of coal is slightly more efficient (×1.11) than using the coal itself as fuel. Nine coal smelts 80 items instead of the usual 72.
  • If the player wants to use wooden tools as fuel, the most efficient way is to use it until its durability reaches 1, then use it as a fuel afterward.
  • Melting down used iron – or golden – tools and armor for nuggets and crafting the same tool out of them afterward is a more efficient strategy in the case of shovels, swords and hoes (the latter two just barely). Otherwise, the player can get far more durability for their iron by combining the items in the crafting grid or a grindstone.
  • "Smelting" is a broad term in the context of Minecraft while in the real world, smelting has a more precise definition.[2]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. "Crafting and Mining in Minecraft" – Nizzotch, January 29, 2010 – via YouTube
  2. "Block of the Week: Furnace" – Minecraft.net, September 15, 2017