Smelting

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The furnace interface.

Smelting is a method of producing refined goods in Minecraft, also known as melting, baking, cooking, burning, drying, or producing. It has the same idea as crafting; one must put in acceptable ingredients, and a corresponding output will be given. However, smelting utilizes furnace blocks, which have a unique interface: one "input" field for the object that will be heated, one field for the fuel, and one "output" field for the final smelted product. For example, two saplings (fuel) could be used to smelt one wood (input) into one charcoal (output).

To smelt something, an input material and a fuel must be loaded into the furnace. It will begin to smelt on its own and will continue to work if the menu is closed and the player leaves. You can tell whether a furnace is working or not by seeing if the furnace is lit or not and if the fire particle effects are appearing or not. When the furnace begins to smelt, it will consume one piece of fuel and the fire gauge will fill up. As the input smelts, the fire gauge will slowly recede until it is gone, and then the next piece of fuel will be used. If there is no more fuel left, the furnace will be interrupted and the item will be uncooked. If fuel is burning and runs out of input, the fire gauge will continue to burn down, wasting the burn time left. Once the fire gauge is out, no more fuel will be used.

As things smelt, an arrow icon represents the cooking process. Each smelting operation takes 10 seconds and the progress will be shown on the arrow. If the furnace runs out of fuel before the arrow is filled up, then the input will not be smelted and the process will rewind at 2x speed. When the arrow fills up completely, one input item will be put into the output field as an output item.

If the player leaves a furnace while it is smelting and travels so far that the chunks unload, the smelting process will halt until the player returns. Smelting will also pause if one leaves the dimension the furnace is located in. If the player sleeps in a bed while a furnace is smelting, the furnace's progress will be the same as if the bed had not been used and no additional time had passed. This is because when a player sleeps in a bed, no time actually passes. Instead, the game sets the time of day to morning.

Recipes[edit | edit source]

Food[edit | edit source]

Product Ingredient Exp Description


Cooked Porkchop


Raw Porkchop
0.35 Fills 8 (Hunger.svgHunger.svgHunger.svgHunger.svg), while raw only fills 3 (Half Hunger.svgHunger.svg).


Steak


Raw Beef
0.35 Fills 8 (Hunger.svgHunger.svgHunger.svgHunger.svg), while raw only fills 3 (Half Hunger.svgHunger.svg).


Cooked Chicken


Raw Chicken
0.35 Fills 6 (Hunger.svgHunger.svgHunger.svg), while raw only fills 2 (Hunger.svg) and raw has a 30% chance for Hunger.


Cooked Fish


Raw Fish
0.35 Fills 5 (Half Hunger.svgHunger.svgHunger.svg), while raw only fills 2 (Hunger.svg).


Cooked Salmon


Raw Salmon
0.35 Fills 6 (Hunger.svgHunger.svgHunger.svg), while raw only fills 2 (Hunger.svg).


Baked Potato


Potato
0.35 Fills 5 (Half Hunger.svgHunger.svgHunger.svg), while raw only fills 1 (Half Hunger.svg).


Cooked Mutton


Raw Mutton
0.35 Fills 6 (Hunger.svgHunger.svgHunger.svg), while raw only fills 2 (Hunger.svg).


Cooked Rabbit


Raw Rabbit
0.35 Fills 5 (Half Hunger.svgHunger.svgHunger.svg), while raw only fills 3 (Half Hunger.svgHunger.svg).

Processing ores and materials[edit | edit source]

Product Ingredient Exp Description


Iron Ingot


Iron Ore
0.7 Used to craft various items. See Iron Ingot


Gold Ingot


Gold Ore
1.0 Used to craft various items. See Gold Ingot


Glass



Sand
0.1 Used to make transparent structures. Also used to craft Glass Panes, Glass Bottles, Stained Glass, Daylight Sensors, and Beacons.


Stone


Cobblestone
0.1 Used as a building material. Also used for crafting Pressure Plates, Buttons, Stone Brick blocks, Redstone Comparators, and Redstone Repeaters.


Brick


Clay
0.3 Used to make Brick blocks and Flower Pots.


Nether Brick


Netherrack
0.1 Used to make Nether Brick blocks.


Terracotta


Clay
0.35 Decoration block. Also used to make Dyed Terracotta.


Cracked Stone Bricks


Stone Bricks
0.1 Decoration block. Also spawns in strongholds.

















Glazed Terracotta

















Dyed Terracotta
0.1 Decoration block.

Wasting ores[edit | edit source]

The following ores can be smelted, but in these cases this is unnecessary and wasteful. All these ores will yield their product freely when mined with an appropriate pickaxe. The ore blocks themselves can only be obtained with the Silk Touch enchantment. Also, these ores either produce multiple drops when mined, or they may do so when mined with a Fortune-enchanted pickaxe. Smelting, however, will always give only a single unit of the product. Mining the ore blocks will also give far more experience.

Product Ingredient Exp Description


Diamond


Diamond Ore
1.0 Used to craft various items.
When normally mined drops 1 diamond and 3–7 exp.


Lapis Lazuli


Lapis Lazuli Ore
0.2 Used as a dye, to enchant items, and to craft a Lapis Lazuli Block.
When normally mined drops 4–8 lapis lazuli and 2–5 exp.


Redstone


Redstone Ore
0.7 Used in crafting, brewing, and redstone circuits.
When normally mined drops 4–5 redstone and 1–5 exp.


Coal


Coal Ore
0.1 Used as a fuel and as lighting.
When normally mined drops 1 coal and 0–2 exp.


Emerald


Emerald Ore
1.0 Used for trading and to craft emerald blocks.
When normally mined drops 1 emerald and 3–7 exp.


Nether Quartz


Nether Quartz Ore
0.2 Used to craft various items
When normally mined drops 1 Nether Quartz and 2–5 exp.

Tools, weapons and armor[edit | edit source]

Product Ingredient Exp Description


Iron Nugget
















Tools, armor and horse armor made from iron; chainmail armor
0.1 Can be crafted back into iron ingots


Gold Nugget











Tools, armor and horse armor made from gold
0.1 Can be crafted back into gold ingots

Other smeltable items[edit | edit source]

Product Ingredient Exp Description


Cactus Green


Cactus
0.2 Used as a dye.


Charcoal







Wood Log






Wood Bark [upcoming 1.13]
0.15 Used to craft Torches and Fire Charges and as fuel in a Furnace or in a Minecart with Furnace. Ingredient must be a log, not sticks or planks.


Popped Chorus Fruit


Chorus Fruit
0.1 Used to make purpur blocks.


Sponge


Wet Sponge
0.15 Used to soak up water. Drying a Sponge allows it to be reused. Buckets can be used in the fuel slot for this recipe[Java and Bedrock editions only]

A note about fractional experience values: For fractional values, first multiply this value by the number of smelted items removed from the furnace, then award the player the whole-number part, and if there is a fractional part remaining, this represents the chance of an additional experience point.

  • For example, when smelting 1 coal ore and removing the coal, the value is 0.1, so this grants a 10% chance of getting 1 experience point.
  • Or, when smelting 6 cactus and removing all 6 cactus green, the value is 0.2 * 6 = 1.2, so this grants 1 point, plus a 20% chance of an additional point.

Fuel efficiency[edit | edit source]

See also: Tutorials/Choosing a fuel

Sleeping while smelting/cooking items will not speed up the process.

Note that after a piece of fuel has started burning, you cannot stop it from burning, though you can remove any unburnt pieces of fuel. If there are fewer items than the fuel can burn, some of the fuel will be wasted. Accordingly, you will usually want to smelt things in multiples of 8 (when burning lumps of coal or charcoal), or occasionally 3 (2 wooden planks). For individual smelts, you can use sticks or saplings, 2 of which smelt 1 item.

When starting a new world, burning your wooden tools (once you have stone) is a quick way to make your first lump or two of charcoal. They each still smelt a complete item even if almost used up.

For larger jobs, a single lava bucket or a block of coal can burn more items than will fit in the furnace—both input and output are limited to a stack of 64, but a block of coal burns 80, and lava can burn 100. To use lava efficiently, keep the remaining load of 36 or 16 items handy, and put it in during the middle third of the burn (after it has done that many, but before it exhausts the original stack). Remember to both refill the un-smelted items, and remove the smelted product. A despawn timer on a note block may help.

Alternately, you can use hoppers on top and bottom of the furnace. This will automatically feed and empty the furnace, but loses the experience gained by manually unloading the furnace. For larger smelting jobs, a third hopper can feed in fuel (empty buckets will go in the output hopper).

List of items that can be used as fuel[edit | edit source]

Fuel Burning time
(seconds)
Number of
operations
per fuel
Number of
operations per
stack of fuel
Seconds per
wood block (log)
[note 1]
Amount needed to
burn a stack (64) of items
Notes

Lava Bucket
1000
16:40
20000 ticks
100 100

0.64 If a lava bucket is used as fuel,

an empty bucket will remain in the fuel slot.


Block of Coal
800
13:20
16000 ticks
80 2560

0.8

Blaze Rod
120
2:00
2400 ticks
12 768

5.3333...

Coal
80
1:20
1600 ticks
8 512

8

Charcoal
80
1:20
1600 ticks
8 512 25.09... to 80[note 2]
typ 68.6s to 70s
8






Any Boat
60
1200 ticks
6 6

34.2...

10.666... [Bedrock Edition only]






Any Boat
20
400 ticks
2 2

16

32 [Legacy Console and Java editions only]






Any Wood
15
300 ticks
1.5 96

15

42.666...






Any Wood Planks
15
300 ticks
1.5 96

60

42.666...

Wooden Pressure Plate
15
300 ticks
1.5 96

30

42.666...






Any wood Fence
15
300 ticks
1.5 96

36

42.666...






Any Fence Gate
15
300 ticks
1.5 96

15

42.666...






Any Wood Stairs
15
300 ticks
1.5 96

40

42.666...

Trapdoor
15
300 ticks
1.5 96

20

42.666...

Crafting Table
15
300 ticks
1.5 96

15

42.666...

Bookshelf
15
300 ticks
1.5 96

10

42.666...

Chest
15
300 ticks
1.5 96

7.5

42.666...

Trapped Chest
15
300 ticks
1.5 96

6.85...

42.666...

Daylight Sensor
15
300 ticks
1.5 96

40

42.666...

Jukebox
15
300 ticks
1.5 96

7.5

42.666...

Note Block
15
300 ticks
1.5 96

7.5

42.666...


Any Mushroom (block)
15
300 ticks
1.5 96

42.666...
















Any Banner
15
300 ticks
1.5 96

120

42.666...






Any Wood Slab
7.5
150 ticks
0.75 48

60

85.333... [Java and Legacy Console editions only]






Any Wood Slab
15
300 ticks
1.5 96

120

42.666... [Bedrock Edition only]

Bow
15
300 ticks
1.5 1.5

40

42.666... [Java and Legacy Console editions only]

Bow
10
200 ticks
1 1

26.6...

64 [Bedrock Edition only]

Fishing Rod
15
300 ticks
1.5 1.5

40

42.666... [Java and Legacy Console editions only]

Ladder
15
300 ticks
1.5 96

51.4...

42.666... [Legacy Console and Java editions only]

Wooden Pickaxe
10
200 ticks
1 1

10

64

Wooden Shovel
10
200 ticks
1 1

20

64

Wooden Hoe
10
200 ticks
1 1

13.3...

64

Wooden Axe
10
200 ticks
1 1

10

64

Wooden Sword
10
200 ticks
1 1

16

64

Sign
10
200 ticks
1 16

18.4...

64 [Legacy Console and Java editions only]






Any wood Door
10
200 ticks
1 64

20

64 [Java and Legacy Console editions only]

Bowl
5
100 ticks
0.5 32

26.6...

128 [Java Edition only][Legacy Console Edition only]

Bowl
10
200 ticks
1 64

53.3...

64 [Bedrock Edition only]






Any Sapling
5
100 ticks
0.5 32

128

Stick
5
100 ticks
0.5 32

40

128

Wooden Button
5
100 ticks
0.5 32

20

128 [Java and Legacy Console editions only]
















Any Wool
5
100 ticks
0.5 32

128 [Java and Legacy Console editions only]
















Any Carpet
3.35
67 ticks
0.335 21.44

191.04... [Java and Legacy Console editions only]
  1. This column is the unit-of-wood-equivalent. Calculation made once the fuel item is converted back to wood. Items in red cannot be crafted exclusively from wood; i.e. they require you to consume something other than wood and its crafted derivatives.
  2. This value is dependent upon the fuel used to smelt the wood. Using a trapped chest to produce one charcoal produces the lower number, while using a fuel that does not consume wood, such as saplings or lava, produces the higher number. Using charcoal as the fuel gives a figure of 70s per wood block since the player will obtain 7 additional charcoal for each 8 wood consumed. The "sane" lower bound is 6 * 80 / 7 ≈ 68.6s, when one breaks 1 wood into 4 planks to smelt 6 wood blocks.

Achievements[edit | edit source]

Icon Achievement In-game description Actual requirements (if different) Availability Xbox points earned Trophy type (PS)
Xbox PS Bedrock Nintendo

Acquire HardwareSmelt an iron ingotPick up an iron ingot from a furnace output.YesYesYesYes15GSilver

Delicious FishCatch and cook a fish!Pick up a cooked fish from a furnace output.YesYesYesYes15GSilver

Pork ChopCook and eat a pork chop.YesYesYesYes10GBronze

Renewable EnergySmelt wood trunks using charcoal to make more charcoal.YesYesYesYes10GBronze

Rabbit SeasonCook and eat rabbit meat.NoNoYesNo15G

Dry SpellDry a sponge in a furnace.YesYesYesYes15GBronze

Super FuelPower a furnace with lavaYesYesYesYes20GBronze

Advancements[edit | edit source]

Icon Advancement In-game description Parent Actual requirements (if different) Internal ID
Advancement-plain-raw.png
Acquire HardwareSmelt an iron ingotGetting an UpgradeGet an iron ingot in your inventory.minecraft:story/smelt_iron

Video[edit | edit source]

History[edit | edit source]

Indev
0.31 January 29, 2010 Flint and steel can be used to smelt ores and cook food.[1]
February 19, 2010 Furnaces were added to replace the cooking/smelting function of flint and steel.
February 23, 2010 The first smeltable item is cobblestone, which can be smelted into stone.
Official release
1.3.1 12w18a Wooden tools work in furnaces as one full furnace use.
12w22a Smelting various ores in furnaces now rewards players with experience points.
When using lava for fuel, you get the bucket back.
1.8 When a furnace runs out of fuel, the smelting progress will rewind at 2x speed.
Pocket Edition Alpha
0.3.2 Furnaces added, meaning that every available block and item can now be gathered, crafted or smelted into (no more unlimited items).
0.8.0 Wooden tools can now be used as fuel.
Lava buckets can now be placed to smelt items (100 items).
0.16.0 ?Furnace's interface changed

Trivia[edit | edit source]

  • It takes 10 minutes and 40 seconds to smelt a stack of 64 items in a single furnace, although this time can be reduced by splitting the load between multiple furnaces. This can be reduced even further by using redstone mechanics.
  • Burning wood with wood planks to make charcoal is over 4 times (×4.57) more efficient than using the wood itself as fuel. It is just over 1¼ times more efficient than using planks.
  • When making charcoal, it's most efficient to convert 17 of the logs into planks (for fuel)
  • If you want to use wooden tools as fuel, the most efficient way is to use it until its durability reaches 0, then use it as a fuel afterwards.
  • "Smelting" is a pretty broad term in the context of Minecraft while in the real world, smelting has a more precise definition.[2]

See also[edit | edit source]

References[edit | edit source]