Smelting

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The furnace interface.

Smelting is a method of producing refined goods in Minecraft, also known as melting, baking, cooking, burning, drying, or producing. It has the same idea as crafting; one must put in acceptable ingredients, and a corresponding output will be given. However, smelting utilizes furnace blocks, which have a unique interface: one "input" field for the object that will be heated, one field for the fuel, and one "output" field for the final smelted product. For example, two saplings (fuel) could be used to smelt one wood (input) into one charcoal (output).

Usage and Mechanics[edit]

To smelt something, an input material and a fuel must be loaded into the furnace. It will begin to smelt on its own and will continue to work if the menu is closed and the player leaves. You can tell whether a furnace is working or not by seeing if the furnace is lit or not and if the fire particle effects are appearing or not. When the furnace begins to smelt, it will consume one piece of fuel and the fire gauge will fill up. As the input smelts, the fire gauge will slowly recede until it is gone, and then the next piece of fuel will be used. If there is no more fuel left, the furnace will be interrupted and the item will be uncooked. If fuel is burning and runs out of input, the fire gauge will continue to burn down, wasting the burn time left. Once the fire gauge is out, no more fuel will be used.

As things smelt, an arrow icon represents the cooking process. Each smelting operation takes 10 seconds and the progress will be shown on the arrow. If the furnace runs out of fuel before the arrow is filled up, then the input will not be smelted and the process will rewind at 2x speed. When the arrow fills up completely, one input item will be put into the output field as an output item.

If the player leaves a furnace while it is smelting and travels so far that the chunks unload, the smelting process will halt until the player returns. Smelting will also pause if one leaves the dimension the furnace is located in. If the player sleeps in a bed while a furnace is smelting, the furnace's progress will be the same as if the bed had not been used and no additional time had passed. This is because when a player sleeps in a bed, no time actually passes. Instead, the game sets the time of day to morning.

Recipes[edit]

Food[edit]

Product Ingredient Exp Description

Cooked Porkchop

Raw Porkchop
0.35 Fills 8 (), while raw only fills 3 ().

Steak

Raw Beef
0.35 Fills 8 (), while raw only fills 3 ().

Cooked Chicken

Raw Chicken
0.35 Fills 6 (), while raw only fills 2 () and raw has a 30% chance for Hunger.

Cooked Fish

Raw Fish
0.35 Fills 5 (), while raw only fills 2 ().

Cooked Salmon

Raw Salmon
0.35 Fills 6 (), while raw only fills 2 ().

Baked Potato

Potato
0.35 Fills 5 (), while raw only fills 1 ().

Cooked Mutton

Raw Mutton
0.35 Fills 6 (), while raw only fills 2 ().

Cooked Rabbit

Raw Rabbit
0.35 Fills 5 (), while raw only fills 3 ().

Dried Kelp

Kelp
0.1 Fills 1 (), while normal kelp is inedible.

Processing ores and materials[edit]

Product Ingredient Exp Description

Iron Ingot

Iron Ore
0.7 Used to craft various items. See Iron Ingot

Gold Ingot

Gold Ore
1.0 Used to craft various items. See Gold Ingot

Glass

Sand
0.1 Used to make transparent structures. Also used to craft Glass Panes, Glass Bottles, Stained Glass, Daylight Sensors, and Beacons.

Stone

Cobblestone
0.1 Used as a building material. Also used for crafting Stone Pressure Plates, Stone Buttons, Stone Brick blocks, Redstone Comparators, and Redstone Repeaters.

Brick

Clay
0.3 Used to make Brick blocks and Flower Pots.

Nether Brick

Netherrack
0.1 Used to make Nether Brick blocks.

Terracotta

Clay
0.35 Decoration block. Also used to make Dyed Terracotta.

Cracked Stone Bricks

Stone Bricks
0.1 Decoration block. Also spawns in strongholds.

Glazed Terracotta

Dyed Terracotta
0.1 Decoration block.

Netherite Scrap

Ancient Debris
2.0 Used to make Netherite Ingots.

Wasting ores[edit]

The following ores can be smelted, but in these cases this is unnecessary and wasteful. All these ores will yield their product freely when mined with an appropriate pickaxe. The ore blocks themselves can only be obtained with the Silk Touch enchantment. Also, these ores either produce multiple drops when mined, or they may do so when mined with a Fortune-enchanted pickaxe. Smelting, however, will always give only a single unit of the product. Mining the ore blocks will also give far more experience.

Product Ingredient Exp Description

Diamond

Diamond Ore
1.0 Used to craft various items.
When normally mined drops 1 diamond and 3–7 exp.

Lapis Lazuli

Lapis Lazuli Ore
0.2 Used as a dye, to enchant items, and to craft a Lapis Lazuli Block.
When normally mined drops 4–8 lapis lazuli and 2–5 exp.

Redstone

Redstone Ore
0.7 Used in crafting, brewing, and redstone circuits.
When normally mined drops 4–5 redstone and 1–5 exp.

Coal

Coal Ore
0.1 Used as a fuel and as lighting.
When normally mined drops 1 coal and 0–2 exp.

Emerald

Emerald Ore
1.0 Used for trading and to craft emerald blocks.
When normally mined drops 1 emerald and 3–7 exp.

Gold Ingot

Nether Gold Ore
1.0 Used to craft various items. See Gold Ingot

Nether Quartz

Nether Quartz Ore
0.2 Used to craft various items
When normally mined drops 1 Nether Quartz and 2–5 exp.

Tools, weapons and armor[edit]

Product Ingredient Exp Description

Iron Nugget


Tools, armor and horse armor made from iron; chainmail armor
0.1 Can be crafted back into iron ingots or into lanterns, soul lanterns, or chains

Gold Nugget

Tools, armor and horse armor made from gold
0.1 Can be crafted back into gold ingots or into golden carrots or glistering melons

Other smeltable items[edit]

Product Ingredient Exp Description

Cactus Green

Cactus
1.0 Used as a dye.

Charcoal

Log
wood
0.15 Used to craft Torches and Fire Charges and as fuel in a Furnace or in a Minecart with Furnace. Ingredient must be a log, not sticks or planks.

Popped Chorus Fruit

Chorus Fruit
0.1 Used to make purpur blocks.

Sponge

Wet Sponge
0.15 Used to soak up water. Drying a Sponge allows it to be reused. Buckets can be used in the fuel slot for this recipe‌[Java and Bedrock editions only]

Lime Dye

Sea Pickle
0.2 Used as a dye.

A note about fractional experience values: For fractional values, first multiply this value by the number of smelted items removed from the furnace, then award the player the whole-number part, and if there is a fractional part remaining, this represents the chance of an additional experience point.

  • For example, when smelting 1 coal ore and removing the coal, the value is 0.1, so this grants a 10% chance of getting 1 experience point.
  • Or, when smelting 6 cactus and removing all 6 cactus green, the value is 0.2 * 6 = 1.2, so this grants 1 point, plus a 20% chance of an additional point.

Fuel efficiency[edit]

Sleeping while smelting/cooking items will not speed up the process.

Note that after a piece of fuel has started burning, you cannot stop it from burning, though you can remove any unburnt pieces of fuel. If there are fewer items than the fuel can burn, some of the fuel will be wasted. Accordingly, you will usually want to smelt things in multiples of 8 (when burning lumps of coal or charcoal), or occasionally 3 (2 wooden planks). For individual smelts, you can use sticks or saplings, 2 of which smelt 1 item.

When starting a new world, burning your wooden tools (once you have stone) is a quick way to make your first lump or two of charcoal. They each still smelt a complete item even if almost used up.

For larger jobs, a single lava bucket or a block of coal can burn more items than will fit in the furnace—both input and output are limited to a stack of 64, but a block of coal burns 80, and lava can burn 100. To use lava efficiently, keep the remaining load of 36 or 16 items handy, and put it in during the middle third of the burn (after it has done that many, but before it exhausts the original stack). Remember to both refill the un-smelted items, and remove the smelted product. A despawn timer on a note block may help.

Alternately, you can use hoppers on top and bottom of the furnace. This will automatically feed and empty the furnace. For larger smelting jobs, a third hopper can feed in fuel (empty buckets will go in the output hopper).

List of items that can be used as fuel[edit]

Fuel Burning time
(seconds)
[note 1]
Number of
operations
per fuel
Number of
operations per
stack of fuel
Seconds per
wood block (log)
[note 2]
Amount needed to
burn a stack (64) of items
Notes
Lava Bucket 1000
16:40
20000 ticks
100 100 None used 0.64 If a lava bucket is used as fuel, an empty bucket remains in the fuel slot.
Block of Coal 800
13:20
16000 ticks
80 5120 None used 0.8
Dried Kelp Block 200
3:20
4000 ticks
20 1280 None used 3.2
Blaze Rod 120
2:00
2400 ticks
12 768 None used 5.3333...
Coal 80
1:20
1600 ticks
8 512 None used 8
Charcoal 80
1:20
1600 ticks
8 512 25.09... to 80[note 3]
typ 68.6s to 70s
8
Any Boat 60
1200 ticks
6 6 34.2... 10.666...
Scaffolding 60
1200 ticks
6 384 None used 10.666 [Bedrock Edition only]
Scaffolding 20
400 ticks
2 128 None used 32 [Java Edition only]
Any Log [note 4] 15
300 ticks
1.5 96 15 42.666...
Any Planks[note 4] 15
300 ticks
1.5 96 60 42.666...
Any Wooden Pressure Plate[note 4] 15
300 ticks
1.5 96 30 42.666...
Any Wooden Fence[note 4] 15
300 ticks
1.5 96 36 42.666...
Any Fence Gate[note 4] 15
300 ticks
1.5 96 15 42.666...
Any Wooden Stairs[note 4] 15
300 ticks
1.5 96 40 42.666...
Any Wooden Trapdoor[note 4] 15
300 ticks
1.5 96 20 42.666...
Crafting Table 15
300 ticks
1.5 96 15 42.666...
Cartography Table 15
300 ticks
1.5 96 15 42.666...
Fletching Table 15
300 ticks
1.5 96 15 42.666...
Smithing Table 15
300 ticks
1.5 96 15 42.666...
Loom 15
300 ticks
1.5 96 15 42.666...
Bookshelf 15
300 ticks
1.5 96 10 42.666...
Lectern 15
300 ticks
1.5 96 6 42.666...
Composter 15
300 ticks
1.5 96 17.1... 42.666...
Chest 15
300 ticks
1.5 96 7.5 42.666...
Trapped Chest 15
300 ticks
1.5 96 6.8... 42.666...
Barrel 15
300 ticks
1.5 96 15 42.666... [Bedrock Edition only]
Barrel 15
300 ticks
1.5 96 8.5... 42.666... [Java Edition only]
Daylight Detector 15
300 ticks
1.5 96 40 42.666...
Jukebox 15
300 ticks
1.5 96 7.5 42.666...
Note Block 15
300 ticks
1.5 96 7.5 42.666...
Any Mushroom Block 15
300 ticks
1.5 96 None used 42.666... [Bedrock Edition only]
Any Banner 15
300 ticks
1.5 24 120 42.666...
Any Wooden Slab[note 4] 15
300 ticks
1.5 96 120 42.666... [Bedrock Edition only]
Any Wooden Slab[note 4] 7.5
150 ticks
0.75 48 60 85.333... [Java Edition only]
Bow 15
300 ticks
1.5 1.5 40 42.666... [Java Edition only]
Bow 10
200 ticks
1 1 26.6... 64 [Bedrock Edition only]
Fishing Rod 15
300 ticks
1.5 1.5 40 42.666...
Ladder 15
300 ticks
1.5 96 51.4... 42.666...
Any Wooden Button[note 4] 15
300 ticks
1.5 96 60 42.666... [Bedrock Edition only]
Any Wooden Button[note 4] 5
100 ticks
0.5 32 20 128 [Java Edition only]
Wooden Pickaxe 10
200 ticks
1 1 10 64
Wooden Shovel 10
200 ticks
1 1 20 64
Wooden Hoe 10
200 ticks
1 1 13.3... 64
Wooden Axe 10
200 ticks
1 1 10 64
Wooden Sword 10
200 ticks
1 1 16 64
Any Sign[note 4] 10
200 ticks
1 16 18.4... 64
Any Wooden Door[note 4] 10
200 ticks
1 64 20 64
Bowl 10
200 ticks
1 64 53.3... 64 [Bedrock Edition only]
Bowl 5
100 ticks
0.5 32 26.6... 128 [Java Edition only]
Any Sapling 5
100 ticks
0.5 32 None used 128
Stick 5
100 ticks
0.5 32 40 128
Any Wool 5
100 ticks
0.5 32 None used 128 [Java Edition only]
Any Carpet 3.35
67 ticks
0.335 21.44 None used 191.04... [Java Edition only]
Bamboo 2.5
50 ticks
0.25 16 None used 256
  1. All times given are for fuel burned in a furnace. When burned in a blast furnace or smoker, fuel is burned twice as fast but produces the same number of items.
  2. This column is the unit-of-wood-equivalent, calculated as the burning time divided by the number of wood blocks used to make one item. Items in red are not made entirely of wood.
  3. This value is dependent upon the fuel used to smelt the wood. Using a trapped chest to produce one charcoal produces the lower number, while using a fuel that does not consume wood, such as saplings or lava, produces the higher number. Using charcoal as the fuel gives a figure of 70s per wood block because the player obtains 7 additional charcoal for each 8 wood consumed. The "sane" lower bound is 6 * 80 / 7 ≈ 68.6s, when one breaks 1 wood into 4 planks to smelt 6 wood blocks.
  4. a b c d e f g h i j k l m Nether wood variants do not burn in a furnace.

Achievements[edit]

Icon Achievement In-game description Actual requirements (if different) Gamerscore earned Trophy type (PS)
Acquire HardwareSmelt iron ore in the furnace.Pick up an iron ingot from a furnace output.15GBronze
Delicious FishCatch and cook a fish!Pick up a cooked cod from a furnace output. Doesn't work if the furnace is hooked up to a hopper, as the player is not getting the item directly from the furnace.15GSilver
Pork ChopCook and eat a pork chop.10GBronze
Renewable EnergySmelt wood trunks using charcoal to make more charcoal.Smelt a wooden log with charcoal as the fuel.10GBronze
Rabbit SeasonCook and Eat Rabbit Meat15GBronze
Dry SpellDry a sponge in a furnace15GBronze
Super FuelPower a Furnace with Lava20GBronze

Advancements[edit]

Icon Advancement In-game description Parent Actual requirements (if different) Namespaced ID

Advancement-plain-raw.png

Acquire Hardware
Smelt an iron ingotGetting an UpgradeHave an iron ingot in your inventory.story/smelt_iron

Video[edit]

Note: this video is outdated, as it doesn't talk about blast furnaces, smokers or campfires cause this video is taked before 1.14 version.

History[edit]

Java Edition Indev
0.310.31 (January 29, 2010)Flint and steel can be used to smelt ores and cook food.[1]
February 19, 2010Furnaces were added to replace the cooking/smelting function of flint and steel.
February 23, 2010The first smeltable item is cobblestone, which can be smelted into stone.
Java Edition
1.3.112w18aWooden tools work in furnaces as one full furnace use.
12w22aSmelting various ores in furnaces now rewards players with experience points.
When using lava for fuel, you get the bucket back.
1.8When a furnace runs out of fuel, the smelting progress will rewind at 2x speed.
1.1318w06aThe smelting GUI now includes a recipe tab, allowing players to know how to smelt previously-smelted items, automatically fill in the item to be smelted and filter out the recipes to what they can make from their inventory.
Custom recipes are now loaded from data packs in data/(namespace)/recipes/(name).json.
Turning off the vanilla data pack will also remove all recipes.
18w07aAdded a new fuel: dried kelp blocks.
Pocket Edition Alpha
0.3.2Furnaces added, meaning that every available block and item can now be gathered, crafted or smelted into (no more unlimited items).
0.8.0Wooden tools can now be used as fuel.
Lava buckets can now be placed to smelt items (100 items).
0.16.0?Furnace's interface changed

Trivia[edit]

  • It takes 10 minutes and 40 seconds to smelt a stack of 64 items (that is, 10 seconds per item) in a single furnace, although this time can be reduced by splitting the load between multiple furnaces. This can be reduced even further by using redstone mechanics.
  • Burning wood with wood planks to make charcoal is over 4 times (×4.57) more efficient than using the wood itself as fuel. It is just over 1¼ times more efficient than using planks.
  • When making charcoal, it's most efficient to convert 17 of the logs into planks (for fuel)
  • If you want to use wooden tools as fuel, the most efficient way is to use it until its durability reaches 0, then use it as a fuel afterwards.
  • "Smelting" is a pretty broad term in the context of Minecraft while in the real world, smelting has a more precise definition.[2]

See also[edit]

References[edit]