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Spawning refers to players and mobs being created and placed in the game world.

Player spawning[edit]

World spawn[edit]

World spawning area. White represents the extent of singleplayer, blue represents multiplayer, and yellow represents the world spawn point.

New players initially spawn within a small area surrounding the world spawn point when the server is not in adventure mode. This area is 21×21 blocks by default, but can be changed by the spawnRadius gamerule in both single and multiplayer. Upon death,the player respawns within this area unless the player's individual spawn point changed (by sleeping in a bed or using a respawn anchor).

Upon spawning, the player is placed on the highest block of the X and Z spawn coordinates, even if this would set the player above the maximum build height. This area does not consider the existence of a block to spawn on, which can result in players spawning above the Void if there are no blocks at that X and Z location.

The world spawn point also determines the center of the permanently loaded spawn chunks.

The world spawn point itself can be changed using the /setworldspawn command.

Bedrock world spawn search[edit]

In Bedrock Edition, when a player creates a new world, the world spawn point is restricted to specific biomes. The algorithm starts searching from coordinate 0,0 continuing outward until an acceptable biome is found for the world spawn point. Using add-ons, a rare biome can be designated to cause the player to spawn at a distant location, but the game crashes if the biome does not exist or cannot generate.

The algorithm searches for these biomes:

The player spawns within a 5 block radius of the point selected in the chosen biome, sometimes resulting in the player spawning outside the spawn biome, ending up in a beach, river, or swamp biome.

A search for a valid world spawn biome is not performed for Flat and Old world-types.

Adventure mode[edit]

When the server's settings set the default game mode to adventure mode (using the, then the normal spawning mechanic is ignored and players are spawned directly on the world spawn. This includes the X, Y and Z coordinates, even if there is no block there and even if there are blocks above it.

If the Y coordinate is not a valid spawning area then the server looks up until it finds one, up to a maximum of Y=256. If there is space to spawn but it is in midair, the player spawns in midair, even falling into the void if there is a hole.


There are several ways to determine the world spawn point:

  • A compass always points to the spawn point.
  • The following works only for players not connected to a bed:
    • In Adventure mode, the block position players spawn on is the world spawn point.
    • In Creative, Spectator, and Survival modes, players spawn on a random block in a 20×20 box centered on the spawn point. The spawn point can be inferred by repeatedly respawning and keeping track of the smallest rectangle encompassing all blocks players have spawned on so far. If the rectangle spawns between a < b on both axes, the spawn point can be on any integer x between b − 10 ≤ x ≤ a + 10 with equal probability. Once the rectangle has grown to 20×20 blocks, the spawn point is in its exact center.
  • Doing the commands /gamerule spawnRadius 0 then /kill.
  • Entities other than players falling into the exit portal in the End land on the exact spawn point. Items thrown in mark the spot in the Overworld. Players spawn like they normally do, allowing this to be used to perform the above without dying.
  • Mods or external programs such as NBTExplorer or MCEdit can also be used to find and set the world spawn point.

Individual spawn[edit]

The individual spawn point of the player can be changed by sleeping in a bed or using the /spawnpoint command. If the individual spawning area of the player is obstructed upon death, the player respawns at the world spawn.

Sleeping in a bed allows for leniency in obstruction, in that the player respawns on other blocks near the bed if the original point becomes blocked. If the spawn point set via /spawnpoint becomes obstructed, the player is not given this leniency in respawning.

Natural generation[edit]

Many mobs generate upon initial chunk creation. These spawns occur only once per chunk. They are not affected by the /gamerule doMobSpawning command.


A cow that generated with the map inside a tree's leaves and could not escape, a common sight in forested hill areas.

Approximately one in ten newly generated chunks contain mobs, usually in packs of up to four of the same species. They always spawn on the highest available block in a column. For an animal to spawn on it, this block must be opaque and the two blocks above it must be transparent. The block does not need to be a grass block nor does it need to be illuminated as it does with mob spawning.

There are 2 types of animals: common animals and biome specific animals.

Common animals

Common animal mobs do not spawn in desert, badlands, beach, snowy tundra, river, ocean, and mushroom fields biomes. The weight is the spawn rate for the bedrock codebase[more information needed].

  • sheep
    • Weight: 6, 2-3 animals
  • chicken
    • Weight: 5, 2-4 animals
  • pig
    • Weight: 5, 1-3 animals
  • cow
    • Weight: 4, 2-3 animals
Biome specific animals

Some animal mobs spawn only in specific biomes.[more information needed][verify]

Mobs Biome Weight
rabbit desert
giant tree taiga[JE only]
snowy taiga

snowy tundra(all variants)
Frozen ocean
frozen river
snowy beach
legacy frozen ocean[BE only]
flower forest

125 (15 in flower forests)
red mooshroom mushroom fields
mushroom field shore
polar bear
snowy tundra

frozen ocean
frozen river

110 (510 in Frozen ocean)
panda jungle[BE only]

bamboo jungle

410 (110 in regular jungles)
fox taiga

snowy taiga
giant tree taiga

llama savanna


810 (510 in mountains)
horse savanna


410 (110 in savannahs)
donkey plains


240 (140 in savannahs)
jungle(all variants) 410 for parrots, 310 for ocelots
wolf taiga

snowy taiga
giant tree taiga[JE only][upcoming: BE 1.16.0]
forest[JE only][upcoming: BE 1.16.0]

810 (510 in forests)
turtle beach 810
dolphin ocean

warm ocean
lukewarm ocean
cold ocean

cod ocean

lukewarm ocean
cold ocean
frozen ocean[BE only]

squid ocean


salmon river

cold ocean
frozen ocean
Lukewarm ocean[BE only]

26100 in oceans, 16100 in rivers

tropical fish

warm ocean

lukewarm ocean[JE only]
lukewarm deep ocean[JE only]


Randomness for animal spawning is derived from the world seed, which means that worlds with the same seed always generates chunks with the same animals in the same places.


Most monsters cannot spawn on peaceful difficulty. At higher difficulty, most of them prevent the player from sleeping, and most of them spawn at light level of 7 or less.

Common monsters

Common monster mobs can spawn in almost any biome in the Overworld (except for mushroom fields). They can spawn on the surface and underground. The weight is the spawn rate in the Bedrock Codebase.

  • zombie
    • Weight: 100, in groups of 2-4
  • creeper
    • Weight: 100, individually
  • spider
    • Weight: 100, individually
  • skeleton
    • Weight: 80, in groups of 1-2
  • enderman
    • Weight: 10, in groups of 1-2
  • witch
    • Weight: 5, individually
Biome-specific monster[more information needed]

Some monsters spawn only in specific biomes.

Mobs Biome
drowned ocean(all variants)

river(all variants)

husk desert(all variants)
stray snowy tundra

snowy mountains
ice spikes
frozen river
frozen ocean(all variants)

zombie pigman

magma cube

the nether[until JE 1.16 & BE 1.16.0]
magma cube Nether wastes

Basalt Deltas

zombified piglin
Nether wastes

Crimson Forest

hoglin Crimson Forest
ghast Nether wastes

Soul sand valley Basalt Deltas

strider Nether wastes

Crimson Forest
Soul sand valley
Basalt Deltas
Warped Forest

Other mobs[edit]

The mobs still spawn if the /gamerule doMobSpawning command is set to false, because they spawn as part of structure generation.

Spawn cycle[edit]

Java Edition[edit]

Mobs are broadly divided into four categories: hostile, friendly, water (e.g. squid), and ambient (e.g. bat). Hostile mobs have a spawning cycle once every game tick (120 of a second). Friendly and water mobs have only one spawning cycle every 400 game ticks (20 seconds). Because of this, where conditions permit spawning, hostile mobs spawn frequently, but passive mobs (ie: animals) spawn rarely. Most animals spawn within chunks when they are generated.

Mobs spawn naturally within a square group of chunks centered on the player, 15×15 chunks (240×240 blocks). When there are multiple players, mobs can spawn within the given distance of any of them. However, hostile mobs (and some others) that move farther than 128 blocks from the nearest player despawn instantly, so the mob spawning area is more-or-less limited to spheres with a radius of 128 blocks, centered at each player. In multiplayer, mob caps are shared by all players, no matter where they are.

Every 24000 ticks (20 minutes) the game attempts to spawn a single wandering trader with two leashed llamas within 48 blocks of a player or at a village meeting place, if no wandering trader exists in the world. The trader does not spawn when the player is underground.‌‌[Java Edition only]

Java Edition mob cap[edit]

This section is a stub, meaning that it lacks some important information. You can help by expanding it with further information relating to the topic.
Reason: The new charge/cost/energy system used for Soul Sand Valleys and Warped Forests. Each mob has a cost for spawning and deducts it from the biome's total energy. Is it reduced per entity spawn or per pack spawn? How does energy recharge? Etc. See,, and

Mob caps are directly proportional to the total number of chunks eligible for spawning. To calculate the cap, the spawning area is expanded by one chunk in every direction (so the default gives 17×17 chunks), then the total number of chunks is plugged into the following formula:

mobCap = constant × chunks ÷ 289

The constants for each group are as follows:

  • Monster = 70
  • Creature = 10
  • Ambient (bats) = 15
  • Water creature (squid, fish, dolphins) = 15[until JE 1.16]
  • Water creature (squid, dolphins) = 5‌[upcoming: JE 1.16]
  • Water ambient (fish) = 20‌[upcoming: JE 1.16]
  • Misc = 15[until JE 1.16]
  • Misc = -1‌[upcoming: JE 1.16]

The "misc" category is only used by entities that are not mobs, do not spawn naturally, and/or following different spawning rules than other mobs. As such the mob cap has no bearing on mobs of this category.

In singleplayer, there are always 289 chunks in range so the constant is always used as the global mob cap.

In multiplayer, the global mob cap grows as more chunks are loaded. As chunks that are in the range of multiple players are counted only once, more chunks and higher mob caps result from the players spreading out more.

The number of mobs is checked once at the beginning of each spawning cycle against the cap. If the number of living mobs in a category is over its cap, the entire spawning cycle for that category is skipped. The area checked for mobs is the same as the area used for calculating the mob cap, which is the spawning area expanded by one chunk in every direction. The mob cap count is separate for each dimension.

Pack spawning[edit]

Example of a mob pack spawning. The 41×1×41 spawning area is shaded blue (not to scale). The yellow figures represent the actual positions that mobs could spawn in after checking the environment. Note that the mobs can spawn inside torch and ladder blocks. But they can't spawn on top of glass because it is not opaque. The red cube is the center of the pack.
Requirements for the spawning location of individual mobs.

For each spawning cycle, one attempt is made to spawn a pack of mobs in each eligible chunk. A random location in the chunk is chosen to be the center point of the pack. For the pack to spawn at all, the center block must be non-opaque, or must not fill its entire cube, or must be powered.

If the pack location is suitable, up to 12 attempts are made to spawn up to a pack, which is 8 wolves, 1 ghast, 3 rabbits, or 4 of any other mob. The pack is spawned within a 41×1×41 (that's a 41×41 square that is one block high) area centered at the initial block. Mobs spawn with the lowest part of their body inside this area. For each spawn attempt, a block location within the pack area is chosen at random. Though the pack area extends 21 blocks out from the center, the random location is heavily skewed toward the center of the pack. Approximately 85% of spawns are within 5 blocks of the pack center, and 99% within 10 blocks of the center.

All mobs within a pack are the same species. The species for the entire pack is chosen randomly from those eligible to spawn at the location of the first spawn attempt in the pack.

In the Overworld, this depends on the location:

In the Nether, the locations are less varied:

Spawn conditions[edit]

Each individual spawn attempt succeeds only if all of the following conditions are met:

  • There must be no players and no player spawn points within a 24 block distance (spherical) of the spawning block
  • There must be fewer loaded mobs of that type than the mob cap for that mob.
  • If it is a squid, a guardian, a drowned, a cod, a salmon, a pufferfish, a tropical fish or a dolphin then...
    • the spawning block must contain liquid (water)
    • If it is a squid, then...
      • the spawning block must be between level 46 and 62, inclusive
      • the biome must be Ocean or River
      • the spawning mob must not be obstructed by other mobs
    • If it is a guardian, then...
      • the difficulty must not be peaceful
      • 95% chance of failure if the spawning block has sky exposure (details)
  • If it is not a squid, guardian, a drowned, a cod, a salmon, a pufferfish, a tropical fish or a dolphin, then...
  • If it is a bat, then...
    • the spawning block must be at level 62 or below
    • If the real-time day is between October 20 and November 3, then the light level must be 7 or darker. Otherwise the light level must be 4 or darker.
  • If it is an animal (other than a mooshroom or ocelot), then...
    • the light level of the spawning block must be 9 or brighter
      • the block directly below the spawning block must be grass
  • If it is a mooshroom, then...
    • the light level of the spawning block must be 9 or brighter
      • the block directly below the spawning block must be mycelium
  • If it is an ocelot, then...
    • the spawning block must be above level 63
    • the block directly below the spawning block must be grass or leaves
    • there is a 13 chance for the spawn to fail
  • If it is a hostile mob (except as noted below), then...
    • the difficulty must not be peaceful
    • the light level of the spawning block must be 7 or darker (with exception during thunderstorms), and more light increases the chance for the spawn to fail
    • sunlight falling on the spawning block further increases the chance for the spawn to fail, by up to 50%
  • If it is a slime, then...
    • the light checks in the general hostile mob check don't apply
    • one of the following must be true:
      • option 1:
        • the spawning block must be in a chunk eligible to spawn slimes (see the slime page for details)
        • the spawning block must be below level 40
        • 90% chance of failure
      • option 2:
        • the spawning block must be in a swamp biome
        • the spawning block be on level 51 through 69 inclusive
        • chance of failure based on the phase of the moon
        • the light level of the spawning block must be 7 or darker, and more light increases the chance for the spawn to fail
        • 50% chance of failure
  • If it is a ghast, then...
    • the light checks in the general hostile mob check don't apply
    • there is a 95% chance of spawn failure
  • If it is a blaze, then...
    • the light checks in the general hostile mob check don't apply
    • the light level must be 11 or darker
  • If it is a drowned a 140 chance must succeed for oceans, while a 115 chance must succeed for rivers
    • In ocean biomes, drowned spawn at a height less than 5 blocks below sea level

If all of these conditions are met then the mob is spawned. The pack is complete when 4 mobs have spawned (or 8 wolves, or 1 ghast, or 3 rabbits), or 12 attempts have been made, whichever comes first. The exception(s) to these rules is the ender dragon or the wither.


  • Due to the general block checks, all mobs except squid, drowned, cod, salmon, pufferfish, tropical fish, dolphins and guardians must spawn on top of an opaque block with at least two blocks of headroom, even ghasts, etc. However, short mobs can spawn in a one block high space if the block above is transparent, like a glass block.
  • Individual mobs and packs can spawn inside signs, and other blocks that have no collision boxes. However, they cannot spawn on any type of rails or on pressure plates.
  • Similarly, buildings surrounded by air spawn more mobs inside than underground rooms because packs that spawn outside of the building can spawn mobs inside it.
  • The mob caps tend to be reached in seconds. Because of this, mobs can be funneled into a spawning room by preventing them from spawning outside of it.
  • The caps also mean that the faster mobs are killed, the faster new mobs appear.
  • Because the caps are checked only at the beginning of a spawn cycle, they can be dramatically exceeded when a large number of mobs spawn in a single cycle. This happens often with squid, which have a fairly low cap (5 in single player) but can spawn in the hundreds in a single cycle, in an area with lots of water.
  • If the player's view distance or the server view distance in multiplayer is at 9 or below, mob spawning is severely reduced (or they despawn too quickly), and may result in the player encountering no mobs at all. Set the view distance to 10 or higher to ensure mobs spawn correctly.

Bedrock Edition[edit]

Natural spawning in Bedrock Edition shares some similarities to natural spawning in Java Edition. In Bedrock Edition, there are two main types of natural spawns: pack spawns and structure mob spawns. Structure mob spawns are mobs spawned as part of a structure, such as nether fortresses, witch huts, etc. Pack spawns account for all other types of natural spawns, including mobs that spawn individually (i.e. not in a pack of 2 or more). Both types of natural spawns follow the same rules for spawn conditions and the mob cap, however most animal can spawn at light level 7 or higher rather than 9 or higher.

Mob spawning is evaluated for every chunk within a 6 chunk cylindrical radius of the player that is ticked; if the simulation distance is smaller than 6 chunks, then only chunks within the simulation distance can spawn mobs. There is a 1200 chance of the mob spawning algorithm attempting to run per chunk, per-tick.

Bedrock Edition mob cap[edit]

There are two main mob caps that affect spawning: a global mob cap and a mob density cap. The global mob cap for natural spawns is set at 200 regardless of difficulty. The global mob cap affects only natural mob spawning, and does not affect mobs spawned through breeding, spawn eggs, the /summon command, monster spawners or any other type of mob spawning. Only mobs that are within ticking areas (both those around players and those set manually using the /tickingarea command) count toward the global mob cap; mobs not ticked do not count toward the global mob cap. Mobs can also have their own individual cap listed below:

Individual Mob Caps
Mob Surface Cap Cave Cap
Bat 0 5
Cod 20 0
Creeper 5 Unlimited
Dolphin 5 0
Drowned 5 in ocean
2 in river
Ghast 0 2
Pufferfish 3 0
Salmon 10 in ocean

4 in river

Squid 4 0
Tropical Fish 20 for preset pattern
20 for random pattern

Alongside the global mob cap is a mob density cap. The mob density cap limits how many mobs of each type and category can spawn within a 9 chunk by 9 chunk square region surrounding each chunk eligible for spawning. Mobs in chunks outside a ticking area still count toward the mob density count. The density cap is split up into two distinct categories: a cap for surface mobs, and a cap for cave mobs. Cave mobs do not count toward the surface mob cap, and surface mobs do not count toward the cave mob cap. Whether a mob counts as a surface mob or a cave mob is determined by where it spawned, not where it happens to be at the moment.

There are four categories of mobs: ambient, animal, monster, and water. The mob density cap for each category and location of mob in each dimension is as follow:

Mob Density Caps
Category Location Overworld Nether The End
Ambient Surface 0 0 0
Cave 2 0 0
Animal Surface 4 0 0
Cave 0 0 0
Monster Surface 8 0 10
Cave 8 16 8
Water Surface 4 0 0
Cave 0 0 0

Spawn conditions[edit]

The following rules apply to all mobs:

  • Can spawn only between 24 and 54 blocks spherical radius from the player.
  • Cannot spawn if the block below them is air (except for Phantoms).
  • Cannot spawn if that mob would collide with an existing mob.
  • Cannot spawn on bottom half of slabs or carpet.

Some additional rules apply to specific categories of mobs.

For water mobs:

  • Cannot spawn outside of liquid.

For monsters:

  • Cannot spawn if the light level is greater than 7.

For non-water mobs:

Pack spawning[edit]

Pack spawning happens in two stages: first attempt to spawn surface mobs, then attempt to spawn cave mobs. Before spawning, the mob density cap is calculated based on the 9x9 square area surrounding the current chunk.[more information needed] Spawning begins by picking a random X and Z location within the chunk currently being evaluated. The Y coordinate is determined by starting at the world height and searching downward for the next block of a certain type[more information needed] with a non-solid block above it. The first such block that is found is considered to be the surface, and the algorithm attempts to spawn a surface mob pack. The algorithm then continues to search downward for the next suitable block with a non-solid block above it. When a block meeting the criteria is found, the algorithm attempts to spawn a cave mob pack at that block location. Cave spawn attempts continue until the Y coordinate reaches the world bottom, and do not stop even if a cave pack was spawned.

Surface and cave pack spawn attempts then go through the following steps to figure out what mob to spawn and how many:

  1. Picks a random mob.
    • If the current spawn location is in a liquid, pick a random water mob.
    • If the light level is greater than 7, there are no other blocks above the current location, and the current location is a grass block, pick a random animal mob.
    • Otherwise, spawn a monster mob.
  2. Picks a random number of mobs to spawn in the pack. Each mob can have its own min and max pack size, and the pack size can depend on difficulty.
  3. Make sure the spawn location has suitable spawn conditions.
  4. Limit the number of mobs spawning based on the global mob cap. No mobs spawn if the mob count already meets or exceeds the mob cap.
  5. For each mob to spawn, check that spawning it would not exceed the mob density cap.
    • If spawning the mob would not exceed the mob density cap, then the probability of a mob spawning can be calculated using the formula: (mob density cap - current mob density count) / mob density cap
  6. Finally, attempt to spawn the mob in the world.
    • Spawning the mob can fail; for example, if spawning it would cause it to spawn inside of a block or part of a wall.

Other types of spawning[edit]

  • Cows, chickens, pigs, sheep, mooshrooms, villagers, ocelots, wolves, horses, llamas, donkeys, rabbits, pandas, cats, foxes, turtles, and bees can breed. All of these require a player to breed them except for villagers and turtles.
  • A thrown egg has a 18 chance of spawning a chicken, and an additional 132 chance of spawning 4 chickens from a single egg, so there is a total of 1256 chance for a single thrown egg to spawn 4 chickens.
  • A snow golem, iron golem, or wither can be made to spawn if a player builds the proper structure out of blocks. Iron golems can also spawn in sufficiently populous villages. See their respective pages for full details.
  • An infested block spawns a silverfish if broken, or if a nearby silverfish is attacked.
  • Zombies can spawn in large groups in villages at midnight if the player is within the village, ignoring some of the usual restrictions, forming a siege. The game makes 20 attempts to spawn a zombie within a 17×17×17 area centered on a block within the village's cylindrical radius, at the same Y level as the village center.
  • Zombie pigmen can spawn from nether portals in the Overworld. Lighting and player proximity don't prevent this.
  • Endermites can spawn randomly when a player uses an ender pearl.
  • Killing medium and large slimes and magma cubes spawn more of them, but in a smaller size.
  • When a pig gets struck by lightning, it is replaced by a newly spawned zombie pigman.
  • When a villager gets struck by lightning, it is replaced by a newly spawned witch.
  • If a creeper gets struck by lightning, it becomes charged.
  • A monster spawner causes mobs to spawn constantly in the area around it. Spawners may naturally generate spawning zombies, skeletons, spiders, cave spiders, silverfish, or blazes, but may be made to spawn other mobs using commands or spawn eggs. Mobs have the same spawning conditions they would have from a natural spawn, except hostile mobs may spawn without a block below them.
  • Turtle eggs hatch and spawn baby turtles.
  • Zombies, illagers[JE only], and zombie pigmen can spawn reinforcement when hurt.
  • Skeleton horse can spawn during thunderstorm.
  • Zombie villagers spawn as 5% of naturally-spawning zombies
  • A villager killed by a zombie has a 50% chance of becoming a zombie villager in normal difficulty, and 100% chance in hard difficulty.
  • Skeletons spawn as 20% of naturally-spawning strays.
  • Zombies spawn as 20%‌[JE only]/30%‌[BE only] of naturally-spawning husks.
  • Baby zombies, zombie pigmen‌[JE only], drowned‌[JE only], husks, and zombie villagers have a 15%‌[BE only] or 5%‌[JE only] chance of spawning as chicken jockey.
  • Spiders and cave spiders‌[BE only] have 1% chance of spawning as spider jockey
  • Vindicators, evokers, pillagers, ravagers, and witches can spawn as part of raids.
  • Phantoms spawn after player fails to sleep for at least 3 days.
  • Cats spawn based on the number of beds in village.
  • A brown mooshroom spawns when a red mooshroom is struck by lightning or vice versa.
  • Patrols consist of vindicators‌[Bedrock Edition only] and pillagers. In Java Edition, patrols can spawn like regular monsters. In Bedrock Edition, patrols can spawn in any biome except in the End, the Nether and mushroom fields; they even spawn in biomes where common monsters cannot spawn, such as in legacy frozen ocean.
  • Cod, salmon, pufferfish, and tropical fish spawn when using the corresponding bucket of fish.
  • In Creative, the player can use spawn eggs to spawn most mobs. When mobs are spawned this way, all normal spawning requirements, such as light level and block type, are ignored. (Though monsters other than vindicators, evokers, shulker, and ender dragon still cannot be spawned in peaceful)
  • An agent spawns when using a code connection.‌[Bedrock and Education editions only]
  • Any entity can be spawned using the /summon command.
  • Breaking a bee nest or beehive spawns bees when broken.


Java Edition[edit]

Various mob spawning ranges, illustrated.

Grass Block JE6 BE5.png
This section describes content that may be included in a future update to Bedrock Edition.
These features have appeared in Bedrock Edition development versions, but the full update containing these features has not been released for Bedrock Edition yet.

Hostile mobs (other than villagers that were converted to zombie villagers), chickens from chicken jockeys, monsters, despawnable mobs (including bats, squid and ocelots) (after having existed for over 2400 ticks), and hostile wolves can cease to exist, or "despawn", under certain conditions:

  • A mob that has had no player within 32 blocks of it for more than 30 seconds has a 1800 chance of despawning on each game tick (120 of a second), which is a 2.47% chance per second. Therefore, the average lifetime of monsters not within 32 blocks of a player is 40 seconds (after the initial 30 seconds have elapsed).
  • A mob despawns immediately if no player is within 128 blocks of it,‌[Java Edition only] or 54 blocks.‌[upcoming: 1.16.0]
    • Note that this is a Euclidean sphere, not a cylinder from map top to bottom and not a taxicab sphere (which is more like an octahedron). Example: A mob at 0/y/0 remains at least 30 seconds (as above) if the player moves to 65/y/65 (real distance 91.9), but despawns immediately if the player moves to 91/y/91 (real distance 128.7).
    • The chunk the mob is in must still be loaded to the mob to despawn. Otherwise, the mob is frozen until the chunk is loaded again when the player approaches it, and possibly find the same mob again. Because the chunks loaded form a square around the player (if there is only one) while the distance needed for the despawning to happen is the euclidean one, moving in a diagonal direction compared to X/Z axes, and possibly taking some vertical distance, can help keeping the chunks loaded and make the monster despawn. Also, improving rendering distance helps, as this makes the game load more chunks.
  • All hostile mobs (including those that are holding items) in a world despawn if the difficulty is set to Peaceful, regardless as to where the player is positioned in the world.
  • In multiplayer, despawning does not occur while there are no players in the game.
  • A monster that has been named with a name tag never despawns. However, one created from a renamed spawn egg does despawn as normal.
  • If a monster holds any items or wears any armor that was given by a player or picked up from the ground, it does not despawn. This does not apply to Endermen that picked up blocks; they can despawn despite holding a block.[1]
  • Chickens that originally spawned as chicken jockeys follow zombie despawn rules, rather than chicken despawn rules.

Bedrock Edition[edit]

[until 1.16.0]

In Bedrock Edition, each loaded chunk has a 150 chance each tick of trying to despawn an entity. If selected, a random entity in the chunk is chosen and despawned, subject to all of the following conditions:

  • The entity is more than 54 blocks circular radius away from the nearest player.
  • The light level is lower than 8.
    • For monsters, the light level is greater than 8, and if it is a surface mob, it is day time.
  • The entity is older than a certain age (the exact age is unknown and may depend on the type of entity).
  • The entity does not have persistence (see below).


In Bedrock Edition, entities with persistence do not despawn naturally. Entities are given persistence in the following situations:

The following entities always have persistence:


Java Edition Classic
August 25, 2009Mobs shown to spawn in groups.
?The spawning area used to be 17x17 chunks rather than 15x15. The area was reduced, but the old size is still used to calculate mob caps.
It was not always possible to funnel mobs into a spawning room by preventing them from spawning elsewhere. Some older sources of information about spawning might make reference to this.
Large amounts of empty space used to encourage spawning in the general area. This remains true on a smaller scale, and only horizontally, due to pack spawning.
Java Edition Alpha
v1.2.0?The chunk 0,0 (X 0-16 and Z 0-16) is no longer always the first chunk evaluated for mob spawning. If one built a dark room inside that chunk, all mobs would spawn inside that room and nowhere else.
Java Edition Beta
1.8Pre-releaseThe player's spawn point is now bound to a specific biome rather than to any sand block (when this was first the case is unknown). The player can spawn in forest, swamp and taiga biomes.
Java Edition
1.0.0?Previously, spawn was determined by light level rather than the current chunk properties. This was no longer the case in 1.0.0. In a Beta world, hostile mobs would spawn in light level 7 or lower while friendly mobs would spawn in light levels 9 or higher. Because of this, hostile mobs had a slight chance of spawning even though it was light due to them spawning in the air where there was little light. If you had a lot of torches down, go down to your mine, then return, you would have a tendency to find your house having some cows, pigs, chickens or sheep running about.
1.112w01aThe biomes valid for the player's spawn location were adjusted. Players can now spawn in forest, plains, taiga, forest hills and taiga hills biomes.
1.2.112w03aThe player's spawn point can now also be located in jungle and jungle hills biomes.
1.814w25aMost restrictions on the pack location are removed. Formerly it had to be an air block, now any non-opaque block suffices.
1.915w46aWhen spawning mobs, the spawning block cannot block movement (formerly just had to be non-opaque) and cannot be any type of rail. Also the block above can no longer be liquid.
15w51aAdded spawnRadius gamerule to control the size of the world spawn area.
pre2Pack spawning mechanics adjusted, "12 attempts" is now "up to 12 attempts" and is even more heavily weighted toward the center.
1.1519w37aWhen breedable mobs spawn naturally in a group, the group now sometimes includes babies. (Has a 5% or 10% chance depending on the animal.)


Issues relating to "Spawn" are maintained on the bug tracker. Report issues there.


  • In older versions, it is possible for the spawn point of a world to be in a lava lake, in which case starting a game in Survival is nearly impossible unless there is water nearby. This was fixed in 1.9, so that lava lakes fail to generate in the world spawn area.
  • The world spawn (the point where players spawn if they have no valid bed spawn) is usually a random (seed determined) point between -500 and +500 on the X and Z axis. If the chosen point is in water (due to nothing but ocean biomes in the -500 to +500 range), a second attempt is made between -1500 to +1500. If this fails due to ocean, the game gives up and puts the world spawn in the middle of the ocean (still at the surface) (attempting to play the flat lands preset Water World does this, for example). Normally, a player who spawns in the water does so near the shore because the world spawn itself picked a spot there.
  • An opaque block normally causes all blocks below it to spawn cave mobs, but not if a transparent block is placed on top. This can be exploited for certain mob farms.

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