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A minecart, one method of transportation

Transportation involves the methods by which players move around the world or between dimensions (the Overworld, the Nether and the End).


NOTE: As 1 block is 1 m3, 1 m/s is equal to 1 block per second. Thus for convenience, all speeds are shown in SI Units. 1 m/s equals 3.28 ft/s and 1 km/h equals 0.621 MPH. It is important to remember that the speeds also assume that the form of transportation doesn’t have, if any or if possible, the Speed or Slowness status effect. Some forms are not affected by status effects. Elytras are only slower than listed below if the player has the Slow Falling status effect.

Method Conditions Running start? Average speed (m/s) Average speed (km/h) Works in Nether Average speed (m/s) Overworld equivalent[note 1] Average speed (km/h) Overworld equivalent

Flat terrain No 4.3 15.5 Yes 34.4 124.0

Flat terrain No 5.6 20.2 Yes 44.8 161.6

Flat terrain No 1.3 4.7 Yes 10.4 37.6


Powered Track
Yes, small 8.0 28.8 Yes 64.0 230.4
14 slope track No 7.1 25.6 Yes 56.8 204.8

[note 2]
14 slope rapids Yes, small 7.3 26.4 No, no water can be placed N/A N/A
14 slope rapids No 7.0 25.2 No, no water can be placed N/A N/A

Flat ice

Flat packed ice

Flat frosted ice
No 40.0 144.0 Yes 320 1152

Flat blue ice
No 70.0 252.0 Yes 560 2016

Flat water
No 8.0 28.8 No, no water can be placed N/A N/A


Flat terrain No 4.0 14.4 Yes 32.0 115.2
Flat terrain, using
carrot on a stick
Yes 8.0 28.8 Yes 64.0 230.4

[note 3]
Flat terrain No 9.675 34.83 Yes 77.4 278.6
Flat terrain, fastest possible horse breed No 14.57 52.45 Yes 116.6 419.6


Flat terrain No 7.525 27.125 Yes 60.2 217.0

Zombie horse

Skeleton horse
Flat terrain No 8.62 31.03 Yes 68.9 248.2

Still water, surface[note 4] No 2.20 7.92 No, no water can be placed N/A N/A
Still water, underwater[note 5] No 1.97 7.09 No, no water can be placed N/A N/A
Upstream, underwater No 0.39 1.40 No, no water can be placed N/A N/A
Downstream, underwater No 1.81 6.52 No, no water can be placed N/A N/A
While Diving No 0.39 1.40 No, no water can be placed N/A N/A
Downstream, underwater, standing No 1.37 4.93 No, no water can be placed N/A N/A
Dolphin's Grace status effect No 80 288 No, no water can be placed N/A N/A

Flying (horizontal)[note 6]

Creative Mode

Spectator Mode
Yes 11.0 39.6 Yes 88.0 316.8
Sprint-flying Yes 22.0 79.2 Yes 176.0 633.6

Ender Pearl
Thrown 15º above horizontal No ~23.0 ~82.8 Yes ~184.0 ~662.4
Biggest TNT pearl cannon [note 7] Yes max. 3000 max. 10800 Yes max. 24000 max. 86400

Gliding at 0° pitch Yes, small 30.0 108 Yes 240 864
Continuous rocket boost No 33.5 120.6 Yes 268 964.8
Gliding at 52° pitch down Yes 67.3 242.3 Yes 538.4 1938.2
  1. Certain transportation methods are also valid methods of transportation if used in the Nether. Since one block in the Nether is equal to eight blocks in the Overworld, using the Nether for transportation effectively multiplies transportation speeds by eight.
  2. The time taken by a boat to reach maximum speed is 9.4 seconds—the difference in time between a running start and not, is half that, or 4.7 seconds.
  3. Horses vary in speed. They are the fastest method of land transportation on open terrain.
  4. The swimming speeds are not affected by Swiftness potions. The surface speed refers to "skimming" across the top of the water by holding the spacebar.
  5. Underwater refers to any part of the body submerged in water and walking on flat terrain. The Player travels the same speed regardless of if the water is 1 block deep or 2 (in observed cases).
  6. Flying speed can be varied.
  7. Fastest travel speed currently achievable in survival, numbers are from the Pearl cannon created by SciCraft and Xcom6000


Using potion effects (including beacon effects), walking and sprinting speeds become competitive with other methods of transportation.

Each additional level of
allows the player to walk at nearly the sprinting speed of the previous level, and sprinting with Speed II is only slightly slower than a minecart at full speed or a boosted pig. With adequate food and potion supplies, sprinting may be more cost-effective than building high-speed transportation systems.

Effect level Walking speed (m/s) Sprinting speed (m/s)
none 4.317 5.612

5.181 6.735

Speed II
6.044 7.857


Using the /effect command, extremely high or low speeds become reachable. At exceedingly high levels (100+), the player moves faster than chunks can load.

Effect level Sneaking speed (m/s) Walking speed (m/s) Sprinting speed (m/s)

Speed 50
14.25 47.49 61.74

Speed 127
34.19 113.97 148.17

Speed 256
67.61 225.36 292.96

Vertical transportation[edit]

There are some examples of purely vertical transportation methods:

Method Conditions Average speed (m/s)

Jumping [note 1]
Climbing slope without stairs, pillar jumping, etc 2.0

Ascending 3.2
Descending 3.6

Ascending 2.35
Descending 3.0

No adjacent blocks 2.0
Ascending, with adjacent blocks 0.6
Descending, with adjacent blocks 3.4

Using a Potion of Fire Resistance 0.8

Level 1 0.9




No blocks below player 86.7


  1. The player can jump up a distance of 1 14 blocks. With Jump Boost I, that increases to 1 1516 blocks, and with Jump Boost II, that increases to 2 12 blocks.

Falling speed is more complex: Every tick (120 second), non-flying players and mobs have their vertical speed decremented (less upward motion, more downward motion) by 0.08 blocks per tick (1.6 m/s), then multiplied by 0.98. This would produce a terminal velocity of 3.92 blocks per tick, or 78.4 m/s. However, the sky isn't quite high enough for that: Falling from layer 256 to bedrock takes about 5.5 seconds, with impact at 3.5 blocks per tick (70 m/s). (In creative mode, you can fly higher, and could potentially reach terminal velocity falling from "above the sky".)

A function to calculate the speed of a (free)falling player is the following: v(t) = (0.98floor(t) - 1) × 3.92. The velocity v is in blocks/tick (or meters/tick), and the time t is in ticks. The usual downward velocity will be negative. t is floored because Minecraft only updates your velocity once a tick (so, for example, your velocity at t=3.4 will be exactly the same as your velocity at t=3.0).

Integrating the previous yields an estimate of the distance fallen by tick: d(t) = 196 - 3.92 × t - 194.04 × 0.98t-0.5. Again, distance fallen is negative. The derivation of this distance estimate, and Java code for generating the exact distace, can be found here.

Other modes of transportation[edit]

  • Players are also able to use pistons for transport.
  • Dying is an instant mode of transportation that will take you to your bed or spawn point, but at the cost of all of your items and XP (if the keepInventory gamerule is disabled) and your world (on Hardcore).
  • Standing next to an explosion will send you flying for a certain distance, depending on the strength of the explosion.
    • Not recommended in Survival mode.
    • Due to to how damage is calculated after explosion knockback, you can’t take damage if you make the player cannon powerful enough.
  • It is possible to mount minecarts and boats as long as they are within 4-5 blocks (inclusive) from the player. Placing minecarts in a straight line allows for extremely fast transport. This also works with saddled pigs, provided they stay in position (placed on posts).


Icon Achievement In-game description Actual requirements (if different) Availability Xbox points earned Trophy type (PS)
Xbox PS Bedrock Nintendo

On A RailTravel by minecart to a point at least 500m in a single direction from where you started.Travel by minecart to a point at least 500 m from where you started. Distance is measured in a straight line.YesYesYesYes40GGold

Beam Me UpTeleport over 100 meters from a single throw of an ender pearlYesYesYesYes20GSilver

Super SonicUse elytra to fly through a 1 by 1 gap while moving faster than 40 m/sYesYesAltYes60GGold


Icon Advancement In-game description Parent Actual requirements (if different) Internal ID
Subspace BubbleUse the Nether to travel 7km in the OverworldNetherUse the Nether to travel between 2 points in the Overworld with a minimum horizontal distance of 7000 blocks between each other.minecraft:nether/fast_travel



Java Edition Pre-classic
rd-132211 Added walking as the first form of locomotion.
Java Edition Classic
0.0.12a Added water and lava. "Swimming" (more akin to treading water) introduced.
Java Edition Infdev
June 18, 2010 Added minecarts.
June 25, 2010, 2 Added saddles, which made it possible to use pigs as a (somewhat unreliable) method of transportation.
Java Edition Alpha
v1.0.6 Added boats.
v1.1.1 Added sneaking.
v1.2.0 preview Added the Nether, which could be used as a fast travel zone since any distance covered in the Nether is multiplied by 8 in the Overworld.
Java Edition Beta
1.5 Added powered rails, which removed the need for "booster" minecarts.
1.8 ?Sprinting and flying were added in the Adventure Update.
Fixed an infamous bug where walking on the edges of blocks would accumulate step sounds and rapidly play them upon touching solid ground.
Java Edition
1.0.0 Beta 1.9 Prerelease 2 Added ender pearls, which can be thrown, teleporting the player to where it lands.
Beta 1.9 Prerelease 3 Speed potions added, allowing for faster travel.
1.3.1 12w23a Boats were made faster.
1.4.2 12w36a Added carrot on a stick in the Pretty Scary Update, which made it possible to control saddled pigs.[1] They start slow but will end up going up to 5 blocks per second (5m/sec).[2]
Before this update, the player had no control over the pig's wandering, so this was not a practical form of long-distance transportation. After this update, however, the pig did not jump when being controlled, so transportation was still limited (to the same height or downhill directions).
12w37a Saddled pigs now jump over blocks when being directed with the carrot on a stick.
12w38a Teleportation by Nether Portal is now instantaneous in creative mode.
1.6.1 13w16a Added horses in the Horse Update.
13w16b Made horses slower and reduced the amount of gliding.
1.7.2 13w36a Added ability to "sprint" in minecarts, boats and horses, and while flying in Creative Mode, speeding them up slightly.
1.8 14w05a Added Spectator mode in the Bountiful Update, one of the fastest methods of transportation due to its no-clip ability and adjustable flying speed.
1.9 15w31a Added levitation.
15w41a Added elytra in the Combat Update, which is currently the fastest legitimate method of transportation in the game.
1.13 18w07a Added the ability to sprint while in water, which causes the player to dive to the ground and actually swim. This is much faster than the previous form.
Pocket Edition Alpha
0.1.0 Added water, therefore allowing swimming.
0.2.0 Added flying.
0.8.0 build 2 Added minecarts and rails, allowing travel by minecart.
0.11.0 build 1 Added boats.
0.12.1 build 1 Added sneaking and sprinting.
0.14.0 build 1 Added ender pearls.
0.15.0 build 1 Added horses.
Added saddles, which can be equipped on horses and pigs to ride them.
Added carrot on a stick to control pigs when riding.
Pocket Edition
1.0 build 1 Added elytra.


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