Item repair

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An example of item repair.

Item repair is a feature that allows players to repair damaged tools, armor, or other items with durability by combining them in the grindstone or crafting grid.


Two items of the same type and material can be placed anywhere on the crafting grid or grindstone, which will result in a single repaired item. The repaired item will have usage points equal to the sum of the old items' usage points plus a 'repair bonus' of 5% of the item's maximum uses, up to a limit of the maximum durability for that item. Repairing gives a slight benefit in conserving inventory space, as it combines two non-stackable objects into one.[1]

The repaired object will never be enchanted, even if both items were to have the exact same enchantments, with the exception of curse enchantments, which are transferred to the repaired item. Hence, given the current random enchantment system, using a 'junk' item in a repair may sometimes be useful for removing an unwanted enchantment from an item prior to trying to enchant it again. Tools made of different materials (for example, a wood and a stone pickaxe) cannot be combined.

Formula for uses restored[edit]

The formula for determining how many uses a repaired item will have restored to it in the crafting box, is as follows:

min( Item A uses + Item B uses + floor(Max uses / 20), Max uses)

'floor' means round down to the smaller integer, which rounds the (possibly fractional) 5% bonus. 'min(x,y)' means whichever of x or y is smallest, which effectively limits repairing result to "Max uses" (repair to 100%)

Example: Two stone axes have 10 and 45 uses. A newly crafted stone axe would have 132 uses.

10 + 45 + 132/20 = 55 + 6.6 = 61

Or, in terms of percentage (approximated):

7.5% + 34% + 5% = 46.5%

Thus, the greatest benefit is gained when the two items have a combined durability of at most approximately 95%. You can combine 47.5% + 47.5%, 94% + 1%, 10% + 10% or any other values that total 95% or less. The order in which items are combined does not matter; one sequence of repairs gives exactly the same durability as any other.

However, note in the example, repairing a stone tool restores a bonus of 6 durability, which is actually only 6/132 = 4.5%. The precise combined durability for efficient repairs is shown in the following table.

Item Actual bonus (%) Actual bonus (uses) Combined durability (%) Combined durability (uses)
Golden tools 3.0% 1 97.0% 32
Wooden tools 5.0% 3 95.0% 57
Stone tools 4.5% 6 95.5% 126
Iron tools 4.8% 12 95.2% 239
Diamond tools 5.0% 78 95.0% 1484
Carrot on a stick 3.8% 1 96.2% 25
Flint and steel 4.6% 3 95.4% 62
Fishing rod 4.6% 3 95.4% 62
Shears 4.6% 11 95.4% 228
Bow 4.9% 19 95.1% 366

A good strategy is to wear down two items until both have less than 95% combined durability remaining, but are not so damaged that you risk accidentally breaking them. Put each item in a crafting slot, and check whether the resulting repaired item still has a damage bar. If it does, you can be sure of gaining the full 5% repair bonus for combining those two items, and if it does not, you will lose some of the repair bonus. (A 'perfect' repair is theoretically possible, but unlikely in practice.)

Note that combining items whose combined durability is more than 100% actually wastes more resources than simply using tools until they break.

The precise combined durability for efficient repairs for all types of armor is shown in the following table.

Armor piece Actual bonus (%) Actual bonus (uses) Combined durability (%) Combined durability (uses)
Leather helmet 3.6% 2 96.4% 53
Leather boots 4.6% 3 95.4% 59
Leather leggings 4.0% 3 96.0% 72
Leather chestplate 4.9% 4 95.1% 77
Gold helmet 3.9% 3 96.1% 74
Gold boots 4.4% 4 95.6% 87
Gold leggings 4.8% 5 95.2% 100
Gold chestplate 4.4% 5 95.6% 108
Chainmail helmet 4.8% 8 95.2% 157
Chainmail boots 4.6% 9 95.4% 186
Chainmail leggings 4.9% 11 95.1% 214
Chainmail chestplate 5.0% 12 95.0% 229
Iron helmet 4.8% 8 95.2% 157
Iron boots 4.6% 9 95.4% 186
Iron leggings 4.9% 11 95.1% 214
Iron chestplate 5.0% 12 95.0% 229
Diamond helmet 5.0% 18 95.0% 327
Diamond boots 4.9% 21 95.1% 408
Diamond leggings 4.8% 24 95.2% 471
Diamond chestplate 4.9% 26 95.1% 502

Anvil Repair[edit]

An anvil can also repair items in two different ways. This will cost experience levels, but unlike the grindstone, the anvil will preserve or even enhance the target's enchantments. The anvil can combine the enchantments on two similar items, or rename any item (not just the ones it can repair). The costs are complex, so only a summary is given here.


Two items of the same type are put into the input slots, the first one is the item to be repaired and the second one is to be merged into the first. The second item's durability will be added to the first's, and if applicable, some or all enchantments from the second one will be also added.

Unit repair[edit]

Some items can be repaired by "covering" the damages with a specific material. The item to be repaired is put into the first input slot, and the corresponding material is put into the second slot. Each material item (unit) heals the item's durability by 25% its maximum durability, rounded down.

Repairable items

Anything not listed below does not have a unit repair item, and can only be repaired by consuming another instance of itself.

Item Material

Chainmail boots

Chainmail chestplate

Chainmail helmet

Chainmail leggings

Iron ingot

Diamond axe

Diamond boots

Diamond chestplate

Diamond helmet

Diamond hoe

Diamond leggings

Diamond pickaxe

Diamond shovel

Diamond sword

Elytra Phantom membrane
Golden axe

Golden boots

Golden chestplate

Golden helmet

Golden hoe

Golden leggings

Golden pickaxe

Golden shovel

Golden sword

Gold ingot
Iron axe

Iron boots

Iron chestplate

Iron helmet

Iron hoe

Iron leggings

Iron pickaxe

Iron shovel

Iron sword

Iron ingot

Leather boots

Leather cap

Leather pants

Leather tunic

Shield Planks
Stone axe

Stone hoe

Stone pickaxe

Stone shovel

Stone sword

Turtle shell Scute
Wooden axe

Wooden hoe

Wooden pickaxe

Wooden shovel

Wooden sword




Java Edition
1.0.0September 27, 2011Notch teased that the upcoming prerelease would have item repairing via crafting table,[2][3][4] and that he had discarded the idea of a dedicated "repair table".[5]
Beta 1.9 Prerelease 3Added the capability to repair items.
1.4.2?Bonus for (traditional) item repairing is reduced to 5%. Prior this update, this bonus was 10% of the max durability.
12w41aAdded the anvil. The original item repair system is unchanged.
1.1418w48aItem repair is now done with the grindstone.
1.14.3Pre-Release 3Item repair can now be done with the crafting grid again in addition to the grindstone.
Pocket Edition Alpha
0.12.1build 1Added the capability to repair items and added the anvil.
Pocket Edition
1.0.0alpha the capability to repair items in crafting grid and crafting table using classic ui.
Bedrock Edition
1.11.0beta can now be repaired in grindstone.
Legacy Console Edition
TU7CU11.0Patch 1Added the capability to repair items.
TU151.05Changed repairing tools in the inventory to only allow tools that are not enchanted (since you’d lose the enchantment). Note that this is different to the Java Edition, where repairing enchanted tools in the inventory is possible and will result in the loss of the enchantment.


  • Working on an anvil doesn’t remove enchantments to items but they can be removed by repairing on a crafting grid and grindstone.