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Damage

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An example of damage, getting hurt.

Damage represents injury from attacks or natural causes.

Health[edit]

Players and mobs have a supply of health points, which are reduced when they are injured. Each health point is "half a heart", shown as 1♥.

Players have 20♥ × 10 health points, but may vary by status effects. Mobs have varying numbers of health points, but these are not generally visible to players. However, when riding mobs, a player can see their mount's health, and a wolf's health is visible in its tail angle.

Damage[edit]

Damage from attacks or natural causes subtracts from a player or mob's current health. When their health reaches zero, they die. Players can also recover health naturally by having their hunger at least 18 ( × 9) and the gamerule naturalRegeneration is set to true, or through status effects. Most mobs do not recover health except through status effects, but tamed horses, dogs, and cats can be healed by feeding them.

Armor absorbs some of the damage that would have been done to its wearer, but takes damage itself in the process.

Damage to tools and armor can be viewed in the item's tooltip by pressing the debug key combination F3+H in Java Edition. If the player is playing on a Mac, they have to press fn+F3+H.

Stored and displayed[edit]

Health and damage are stored as floating-point numbers in units of half-hearts. When displaying the HUD, fractional values are rounded up to the next integer.

Dealing damage[edit]

Players can deal damage by hitting most entities with targets at close (melee) range. An "unarmed" attack does 1♥ damage, but weapons and certain tools do more:

  • Swords are crafted for this purpose. While swords do not extend attack range, they deal significantly more damage than any other item or tool except tridents and axes.‌[Java Edition only]
  • Axes, pickaxes and shovels also deal more damage than bare fists. Also, axes deal the most damage but have the slowest attack speed. ‌[Java Edition only]
  • Tridents can be used melee or ranged. They are a balanced weapon, but they cannot be crafted.
  • Any other item is equivalent to fists and does the same damage. This includes hoes, and hitting something directly with a bow or held arrow.
  • While falling, melee attacks deal a critical hit (150% of the weapon's damage including potion effects, but before enchantments are applied, rounded down to the nearest hit point).

There are a few ranged weapons in the game:

  • Arrows are shot by holding and releasing use when wielding a bow, and deal a certain amount of damage depending on the "charge" of the bow. For crossbows, it does a random factor between 6 - 11.
  • Snowballs inflict damage only on blazes, while eggs don't deal any damage to mobs. Both still knock mobs back as if they had been damaged.
  • Splash potions can be thrown, inflicting various effects depending on the potion.
  • Lingering potions can be thrown, creating a cloud that inflicts various effects depending on the potion.
  • Ender pearls don't deal damage to mobs or players other than the player throwing it.
  • Fishing rods cannot be used to damage mobs directly. However, fishing rods can knock entities back or reel them in.

The values below show the damage dealt per hit using various weapons. Critical hits do extra damage. (The values listed here apply only to the Java Edition.)

Tool Attack speed Attack damage Damage/Second (DPS)
Sword 1.6 4♥♥ 4♥♥ 5♥♥♥ 6♥♥♥ 7♥♥♥♥ 8♥♥♥♥ 6.4 6.4 8 9.6 11.2 12.8
Trident 1.1 9♥♥♥♥♥ 9.9
Shovel 1 2.5♥♥ 2.5♥♥ 3.5♥♥ 4.5♥♥♥ 5.5♥♥♥ 6.5♥♥♥♥ 2.5 2.5 3.5 4.5 5.5 6.5
Pickaxe 1.2 2♥ 2♥ 3♥♥ 4♥♥ 5♥♥♥ 6♥♥♥ 2.4 2.4 3.6 4.8 6 7.2
Axe 0.8 1 0.8 0.9 1 1 7♥♥♥♥ 7♥♥♥♥ 9♥♥♥♥♥ 9♥♥♥♥♥ 9♥♥♥♥♥ 10♥♥♥♥♥ 5.6 7 7.2 8.1 9 10
Hoe 1 1 2 3 4 4 1♥ 1 1 2 3[note 1] 4[note 1] 4[note 1]
Other 4 1♥ 4[note 1]
  1. a b c d Against a single target, DPS is effectively limited to 2 due to damage immunity.

Attack cooldown[edit]

Information icon.svg
This feature is exclusive to Java Edition.
Attack indicator (crosshair), empty and charged
Attack indicator (hotbar), empty and charged

Attacking too quickly reduces the strength of attacks. The base damage done (as a fraction of the full possible damage) depends on the time between attacks, which is also reflected in the height of the held weapon on screen and the attack indicator bar (configurable in the options menu):

Item Time (seconds)
0.00 0.05 0.10 0.15 0.20 0.25 0.30 0.35 0.40 0.45 0.50 0.55 0.60 0.65 0.70 0.75 0.80 0.85 0.90 0.95 1.00 1.05 1.10 1.15 1.20 1.25
Sword 20.13% 21.15% 23.20% 26.27% 30.37% 35.49% 41.63% 48.80% 56.99% 66.21% 76.45% 87.71% 100%
Trident 20.06% 20.54% 21.51% 22.96% 24.90% 27.32% 30.22% 33.61% 37.48% 41.84% 46.68% 52.00% 57.81% 64.10% 70.88% 78.14% 85.88% 94.11% 100%
Shovel 20.05% 20.45% 21.25% 22.45% 24.05% 26.05% 28.45% 31.25% 34.45% 38.05% 42.05% 46.45% 51.25% 56.45% 62.05% 68.05% 74.45% 81.25% 88.45% 96.05% 100%
Pickaxe 20.07% 20.65% 21.80% 23.53% 25.83% 28.71% 32.17% 36.20% 40.81% 45.99% 51.75% 58.09% 65.00% 72.49% 80.55% 89.19% 98.41% 100%
Axe 20.03% 20.29% 20.80% 21.57% 22.59% 23.87% 25.41% 27.20% 29.25% 31.55% 34.11% 36.93% 40.00% 43.33% 46.91% 50.75% 54.85% 59.20% 63.81% 68.67% 73.79% 79.17% 84.80% 90.69% 96.83% 100%
20.05% 20.45% 21.25% 22.45% 24.05% 26.05% 28.45% 31.25% 34.45% 38.05% 42.05% 46.45% 51.25% 56.45% 62.05% 68.05% 74.45% 81.25% 88.45% 96.05% 100%
20.04% 20.36% 21.01% 21.98% 23.28% 24.90% 26.84% 29.11% 31.70% 34.62% 37.86% 41.42% 45.31% 49.52% 54.06% 58.92% 64.10% 69.61% 75.44% 81.60% 88.08% 94.88% 100%
Hoe 20.05% 20.45% 21.25% 22.45% 24.05% 26.05% 28.45% 31.25% 34.45% 38.05% 42.05% 46.45% 51.25% 56.45% 62.05% 68.05% 74.45% 81.25% 88.45% 96.05% 100%
20.20% 21.80% 25.00% 29.80% 36.20% 44.20% 53.80% 65.00% 77.80% 92.20% 100%
20.45% 24.05% 31.25% 42.05% 56.45% 74.45% 96.05% 100%
20.80% 27.20% 40.00% 59.20% 84.80% 100%
Other 20.80% 27.20% 40.00% 59.20% 84.80% 100%

The attackSpeed attribute controls the length of the cooldown time, with the time taken being T = 1 / attackSpeed * 20 ticks. The damage multiplier is then 0.2 + ((t + 0.5) / T) ^ 2 * 0.8, restricted to the range 0.2 – 1, where t is the number of ticks since the last attack or item switch.

Damage done by enchantments (Sharpness, Smite, and Bane of Arthropods) is also reduced, but not as severely (the multiplier is not squared):


Item Time (seconds)
0.00 0.05 0.10 0.15 0.20 0.25 0.30 0.35 0.40 0.45 0.50 0.55 0.60 0.65 0.70 0.75 0.80 0.85 0.90 0.95 1.00 1.05 1.10 1.15 1.20 1.25
Sword 4.00% 12.00% 20.00% 28.00% 36.00% 44.00% 52.00% 60.00% 68.00% 76.00% 84.00% 92.00% 100%
Trident 2.75% 8.25% 13.75% 19.25% 24.75% 30.25% 35.75% 41.25% 46.75% 52.25% 57.75% 63.25% 68.75% 74.25% 79.75% 85.25% 90.75% 96.25% 100%
Shovel 2.50% 7.50% 12.50% 17.50% 22.50% 27.50% 32.50% 37.50% 42.50% 47.50% 52.50% 57.50% 62.50% 67.50% 72.50% 77.50% 82.50% 87.50% 92.50% 97.50% 100%
Pickaxe 3.00% 9.00% 15.00% 21.00% 27.00% 33.00% 39.00% 45.00% 51.00% 57.00% 63.00% 69.00% 75.00% 81.00% 87.00% 93.00% 99.00% 100%
Axe 2.00% 6.00% 10.00% 14.00% 18.00% 22.00% 26.00% 30.00% 34.00% 38.00% 42.00% 46.00% 50.00% 54.00% 58.00% 62.00% 66.00% 70.00% 74.00% 78.00% 82.00% 86.00% 90.00% 94.00% 98.00% 100%
2.50% 7.50% 12.50% 17.50% 22.50% 27.50% 32.50% 37.50% 42.50% 47.50% 52.50% 57.50% 62.50% 67.50% 72.50% 77.50% 82.50% 87.50% 92.50% 97.50% 100%
2.25% 6.75% 11.25% 15.75% 20.25% 24.75% 29.25% 33.75% 38.25% 42.75% 47.25% 51.75% 56.25% 60.75% 65.25% 69.75% 74.25% 78.75% 83.25% 87.75% 92.25% 96.75% 100%
Hoe 2.50% 7.50% 12.50% 17.50% 22.50% 27.50% 32.50% 37.50% 42.50% 47.50% 52.50% 57.50% 62.50% 67.50% 72.50% 77.50% 82.50% 87.50% 92.50% 97.50% 100%
5.00% 15.00% 25.00% 35.00% 45.00% 55.00% 65.00% 75.00% 85.00% 95.00% 100%
7.50% 22.50% 37.50% 52.50% 67.50% 82.50% 97.50% 100%
10.00% 30.00% 50.00% 70.00% 90.00% 100%
Other 10.00% 30.00% 50.00% 70.00% 90.00% 100%

Critical hits[edit]

A critical hit performed on a sheep.

Critical hits are attacks that deal extra damage compared to regular attacks. Critical melee strikes, regardless of the weapon used, cause small star particles to fly out of the target who was critically hit. Arrows shot from fully charged bows have a 25% chance of becoming "critical arrows" and dealing extra damage, but all arrows from fully charged bows leave a trail of the same small star particles as they fly through the air. Critical hits affect all damageable entities including players, mobs, paintings, boats and minecarts.

In melee combat, a critical hit occurs when a player attacks a mob while falling, including while coming down from a jump, but not while jumping up. The attack deals 150% of the attack's base damage (before enchantments or armor are applied).

The requirements for a melee critical hit are:

  • A player must be falling.
  • A player must not be on the ground.
  • A player must not be on a ladder/vine.
  • A player must not be in water.
  • A player must not be affected by blindness.
  • A player must not be riding an entity.
  • A player must not be faster than walking (like flying or sprinting.‌[Java Edition only])
  • A base attack must not be reduced to 84.8% damage or lower due to cooldown.‌[Java Edition only]

Immunity[edit]

After sustaining damage from any source, a mob/player turns red in color for half a second. paintings, Minecarts, and boats do not turn red when damaged. During this period, most other incoming damage is not counted against the player/mob's total health.

For instance, if the player attacks a mob with a sword by repeatedly hitting the attack button, the sword's rate of fire exceeds the mob's allowable rate of incoming damage, preventing some attacks from damaging the mob even if they land. It is recommended for the player to wait for a mob to become available to hit again before swinging their sword, making their hits more precise. The tool used does not lose durability after unsuccessful attacks.

If an entity is in the immunity period and then receives higher damage, the game takes the higher damage subtracting the lower damage and deals that. For example, if a mob is attacked with a weapon dealing 7♥♥♥♥ damage and then attacked with a weapon dealing 13♥ × 6.5 damage during the immunity period, the mob receives 13♥ × 6.5 damage total. This also occurs for snowballs on mobs. Damage taken during the damage immunity state does not set one into damage immunity state but is started again after the time has finished when the target next takes damage. Entities in this immunity state can receive critical hits although this does not deal any damage or knockback.

Inflicted by mobs[edit]

The damage mobs deal to players is affected by the difficulty of the game. The below values represent the amount of damage taken per hit.

  • This only applies to mobs attacking the player. Mobs attacking other mobs always deal the 'Normal' damage listed, regardless of difficulty.
  • Values for the creeper and ghast assume the player is directly adjacent to the explosion.
  • The damage of slimes and magma cubes depends on their size. Tiny-sized slimes, while hostile, are unable to do damage directly.
  • Mobs deal no damage on peaceful, apart from wolves[BE only] and llamas.
Mob Difficulty Status effect(s)
Easy Normal Hard
Bee 2♥ 3♥♥ Poison for 10 seconds on normal difficulty and for 18 seconds on hard difficulty
Blaze (melee) 4♥♥ 6♥♥♥ 9♥♥♥♥♥ No
Blaze fireball 5♥♥♥ No
Cave Spider 2♥ 2♥ 3♥♥ Poison for 7 seconds on normal difficulty and for 15 seconds on hard difficulty
Creeper explosion (normal) 25♥ × 12.5 49♥ × 24.5 73♥ × 36.5 When exploding: No

If having a potion effect when exploding, it leaves an effect cloud with the effect, like a lingering potion.

Creeper explosion (charged) 49♥ × 24.5 97♥ × 48.5 145♥ × 72.5
Dolphin 2♥ 3♥♥ 4♥♥ No
Drowned No
Drowned trident (Ranged) 8♥♥♥♥ No
Drowned trident (Melee) 5♥♥♥ 9♥♥♥♥♥ 12♥ × 6 No
Elder Guardian 8♥♥♥♥ Inflicts Mining Fatigue III for 5 minutes on nearby players
Ender Dragon (Melee) 6♥♥♥ 10♥♥♥♥♥ 15♥ × 7.5 No
Ender Dragon (Breathe) Deals damage from area of effect cloud Area effect cloud of Instant Damage
Ender Dragon Dragon Fireball
Enderman 4♥♥ 7♥♥♥♥ 10♥♥♥♥♥ No
Endermite 2♥ No
Evoker fangs 6♥♥♥ No
Ghast fireball (Impact) No
Ghast fireball (Explosion) 9♥♥♥♥♥ 17♥ × 8.5 25♥ × 12.5 No
Giant (unused) 26♥ × 13 50♥ × 25 75♥ × 37.5 No
Guardian 4♥♥ 6♥♥♥ 9♥♥♥♥♥ No
Hoglin[JE only] 3♥♥ 4♥♥ 5♥♥♥ No
Hoglin[BE only] 3♥♥ 6♥♥♥ 9♥♥♥♥♥ No
Husk 2♥ 3♥♥ 4♥♥ Hunger when attacking any mob for 7 × RD seconds
Illusioner arrow 1♥ – 4♥♥ 1♥ – 5♥♥♥ Throws Blindness spells on the player, if regional difficulty is 3 or greater
Iron Golem 4♥♥ – 11♥ × 5.5 7♥♥♥♥ – 21♥ × 10.5 10♥♥♥♥♥ – 31♥ × 15.5 No
The Killer Bunny 5♥♥♥ 8♥♥♥♥ 12♥ × 6 No
Llama spit 1♥ No
Magma Cube (big) 4♥♥ 6♥♥♥ 9♥♥♥♥♥ No
Magma Cube (medium) 3♥♥ 4♥♥ 6♥♥♥ No
Magma Cube (small) 2♥ 3♥♥ 4♥♥ No
Phantom 4♥♥ 6♥♥♥ 9♥♥♥♥♥ No
Piglin arrow[JE only] 2♥ No
Piglin arrow[BE only] 1♥ - 5♥♥♥ No
Piglin[JE only] 3♥♥ 4♥♥ 6♥♥♥ No
Piglin[BE only] 5♥♥♥ 9♥♥♥♥♥ 13♥ × 6.5 No
Pillager arrow 3♥♥ 4♥♥ 6♥♥♥ No
Polar Bear 4♥♥ 6♥♥♥ 9♥♥♥♥♥ No
Pufferfish (Melee) 2♥ 3♥♥ 4♥♥ No
Pufferfish (Poison) 5♥♥♥ Gives the player Poison for 7 seconds
Ravager (Melee) 7♥♥♥♥ 12♥ × 6 18♥ × 9 No
Ravager (Roar) 6♥♥♥ No
Shulker bullet 4♥♥ Levitation for 10 seconds
Silverfish 1♥ No
Skeleton arrow[JE only] 1♥ – 4♥♥ 1♥ – 5♥♥♥ No
Skeleton arrow[BE only] Damage varies with proximity No
Skeleton (melee) 2♥ 3♥♥ No
Slime (big) 3♥♥ 4♥♥ 6♥♥♥ No
Slime (medium) 2♥ 3♥♥ No
Slime (small) 0♥ No
Spider 2♥ 3♥♥ No, but can spawn with effects
Stray arrow[JE only] 1♥ – 4♥♥ 1♥ – 4♥♥ 1♥ – 5♥♥♥ Slowness for 30 seconds when their tipped arrow hits any mob (including another stray)
Stray arrow[BE only] Damage varies with proximity
Stray (melee) 2♥ 3♥♥ Slowness for 30 seconds
Vex 5♥♥♥ 9♥♥♥♥♥ 13♥ × 6.5 No
Vindicator 7♥♥♥♥ 13♥ × 6.5 19♥ × 9.5 No
Witch Deals damage by throwing potions Throws splash potions of Poison, Instant Damage, Slowness, and Weakness
Wither Skeleton 5♥♥♥ 8♥♥♥♥ 12♥ × 6 Wither for 10 seconds
Wither Skull 5♥♥♥ Wither II for 10 seconds on Normal difficulty and 40 seconds on Hard difficulty
Wither (dash attack)
[BE only]
15♥ × 7.5 No
Wolf (tamed) 3♥♥ 4♥♥ 6♥♥♥ No
Wolf (hostile) 2♥ 3♥♥ No
Zoglin 2♥ 3♥♥ 5♥♥♥ No
Zombie 4♥♥ No
Zombified Piglin[BE only] 5♥♥♥ 8♥♥♥♥ 12♥ × 6 No
Zombie Villager 2♥ 3♥♥ 4♥♥ No
Zombified Piglin[JE only] 4♥♥ 6♥♥♥ No


Knockback[edit]

When receiving damage from players, mobs, or most projectiles, players, and mobs are also knocked back. The resulting disorientation and loss of control should not be underestimated, as it is possible to be knocked back over a cliff or into lava, both of which are potentially fatal.

A sprinting attack causes extra knockback. A thrown egg or snowball also causes knockback, despite not damaging most mobs. Entities riding another entity never receive any knockback when attacked. Iron golems, shulkers, and the ender dragon also do not get knockback. Ravagers and hoglins have a 50% chance to knockback resistance and squid are highly knockback resistant on land.

Natural damage[edit]

Besides mob attacks, players can take damage from several other sources.

Lightning damage[edit]

Lightning striking on or near the player inflicts 5♥♥♥ damage, which can be reduced with armor. Lightning strikes on the player are rare and occur only during thunderstorms. Players and mobs that get hit by lightning are set on fire, which is quickly extinguished by the rain during a thunderstorm.

Fall damage[edit]

Most mobs receive damage when falling from excessive heights. Armor itself does not reduce fall damage, however the enchantments Feather Falling and Protection, and the status effect Slow Falling do. The table below shows fall damage immunity for mobs.

Mob Immune
Player No[1]
Hostile and Neutral mobs (monster)

Blaze
Chicken Jockey
Ender Dragon
Snow Golem
Ghast
Iron Golem
Magma Cube
Phantom
Vex
Wither

Yes

Cave Spider
Creeper
Drowned
Elder Guardian
Enderman
Endermite
Evoker
Guardian
Husk
Hoglin
Piglin
Pillager
Ravager
Silverfish
Skeleton
Stray
Slimes
Spider
Spider Jockey
Vindicator
Witch
Wither Skeleton
Zoglin
Zombie
Zombified Piglin
Zombie Villager

No
Shulker Does not fall
Passive and Neutral (animals & npc)

Bat
Bee
Cat
Chicken
Ocelot
Parrot

Yes

Cod
Cow
Dolphin
Fox
Llama
Mooshroom
Panda
Pig
Polar Bear
Pufferfish
Rabbit
Salmon
Sheep
Squid
Strider
Tropical Fish
Turtle
Villager
Wandering Trader
Wolf

No
Donkey

Horse
Mule
Skeleton Horse
Skeleton Horseman
Zombie Horse

Partial[2]
  1. Unless /gamerule falldamage is set to false.
  2. Treat all falls as half of the actual distance

Fall damage is calculated based on distance fallen rather than on velocity when hitting the ground. The distance is accumulated based on a change in position each tick and rising does not reduce the accumulator, thus an entity bouncing in mid-air on the end of a lead accumulates fatal amounts of fall distance despite never being more than a few blocks above the ground.

Fall damage is 1♥ for each block of fall distance after the third. Thus, falling 4 blocks causes 1♥ damage, 2♥ damage for 5 blocks, and so forth. Assuming full health (but no Feather Falling or relevant status effects), a 23 block fall should be fatal (23 - 3 = 20♥ × 10 of damage), but due to the way fall distance is calculated, a 23.5 block fall is required instead.[note 1]

Falling from smaller damaging heights (4-7 blocks) plays a thud sound; larger heights (8+) give a click/cracking sound.

In some cases, it is possible to avoid falling or otherwise survive a fall.

  • Sneaking prevents the player from falling off a drop of one block or greater.
  • Entering or being in water (when not in a boat) resets fall distance. This typically includes falling into the water of any depth.
  • Being in the area of effect of cobwebs resets fall distance.
  • Being in lava reduces fall distance by half each tick.
  • Flying using elytra such that the vertical movement is upward, level or less than 0.5 blocks per tick downward resets fall distance to 1 block.
  • Moving into a ladder or vine's area of effect resets the fall damage. This also applies to trapdoors acting as a ladder.
    • Falling onto the top of a ladder does not reset fall distance and counts as hitting the ground.
    • Horses are unaffected by ladders and vines, and so their fall distance is not reset.
    • Spiders climbing a block count the block as a "ladder" for this purpose.
  • An entity riding another entity does not accumulate fall distance. However, when the ridden entity takes fall damage it damages all riders for the same fall distance.
  • A minecart's fall distance is reset when landing on rails.
  • Boats do not accumulate fall distance while in water deeper than 1 block.
  • Teleporting due to a thrown ender pearl resets fall distance, however, the teleportation itself causes 5♥♥♥ fall damage to players.
  • Wearing armor that is enchanted with Feather Falling or Protection reduces fall damage based on the level of the enchantment.
  • Having the Jump Boost status effect reduces the effective fall distance by 1 block per level, e.g. falling 5 blocks with Jump Boost II counts as having fallen only 3.
  • Slime blocks negate all fall damage, but bounces the entity into the air. This does not apply to players sneaking.
  • Hay bales and honey blocks decrease fall damage to 20% of normal.
  • Beds decrease fall damage to 50% of normal and cause the entity to bounce into the air.
  • Sweet berry bushes negate all fall damage.
  • Holding sneak while landing on at least a two-block-high stack of scaffolding negates fall damage from any height.
  • Slow falling status effect completely negates all fall damage but causes the entity to fall slowly.
  1. The last tick of fall distance isn't added in when calculating fall damage. For certain heights, including 23-block falls, this discrepancy is enough to avoid an entire 1♥ of damage.

Drowning[edit]

The oxygen bar.

When a player runs out of air underwater, they begin to drown, taking approximately 2♥ per second.[note 1]

Mobs can drown as well, although mobs that can drown in water attempt to swim upward. Normally, mobs can remain underwater for 15 seconds before their air supply fully depletes. They can remain underwater for 16 seconds before actually beginning to take damage. A squid or any kind of fish drowns in air instead of in water, while iron golems, guardians, turtles and undead mobs cannot drown in any situation. Withers can drown, but break blocks around them (including water) upon taking damage. Dolphins can drown in air or water and must be exposed to both to survive. A zombie does not take damage but instead begins the process of converting to a drowned mob when continuously in water for 30 seconds, and these mobs do not drown.

When the player is no longer submerged in water or is in a bubble column, their oxygen regenerates at a rate of 1 bubble every 0.2 seconds (4 game ticks). Respiration equipment adds, on average, an additional 16 seconds per level. Water Breathing and Conduit Power regenerate the oxygen‌[Bedrock Edition only] or stop it from depleting.‌[Java Edition only] Neither effect affects squid and fish.

  1. Damage is taken when the air supply value reaches -20. Usually, air supply value decreases each tick, and resets to 0, after damaging player. Respiration gives a chance for air supply to not decrease itself per tick. Chance is x/(x + 1), where x is the level of enchantment.

Anvil[edit]

A falling anvil deals 2♥ per block fallen after the first (e.g., an anvil that falls 4 blocks deals 6♥♥♥ damage). The damage is capped at 40♥ × 20, no matter how far the anvil falls. Wearing a helmet reduces the damage by 25%, but reduces many points of durability on the helmet.

Thorns enchantment[edit]

When a player or mob deals melee or projectile damage to a player or mob that is wearing Thorns-enchanted armor, part of the damage is reflected back at the attacker. The amount varies with the enchantment level. (Level * 15% chance of inflicting 1♥–4♥♥ damage, or Level - 10 damage if level is over 10)

Suffocation[edit]

Suffocation occurs when a player or a mob is unable to breathe due to its head being stuck inside a solid block, causing the player or mob to receive 1♥ damage every half-second. When inside a block, the player can easily step out of it as the blocks do not prevent their movement.

For the purposes of suffocation, blocks that are transparent or do not fill an entire block do not cause damage. This includes Leaves, Glass, Honey Block, any type or position of Slab, any Stairs or Fence, Hopper, Chest, Bed, Bell, Composter, Grindstone, Stonecutter, Iron Bars, End Portal Frame, Grass Path, Farmland, Soul Sand, and closed or open Trapdoor, and extended Piston heads. One notable exception is the partially transparent Slime Block, which does cause damage. Grass Path, Farmland, and Soul Sand still suffocate mobs ‌[upcoming: JE 1.16.2].

The player's screen displays a darkened form of the block in which the player is suffocating. When the player is in third person, the view automatically switches to the first-person view.‌[Java Edition only]

The usual ways a mob can suffocate are:

  • Sand, gravel or concrete powder falling into the space the entity occupies.
  • Riding a pig, boat, or minecart into a one-block-high space.
  • Riding a horse into a two-block-high space.
  • Standing where a tree just grew from a sapling, or where a huge mushroom just grew from a mushroom.
  • Standing where an end gateway appeared after killing the dragon.
  • Having a solid block pushed into the mob's head with a piston.
  • Sleeping in a bed surrounded by blocks and/or having a solid block above it.‌[Bedrock Edition only]
  • Being teleported or filled into a block via commands.
  • When playing on a distant server, sometimes broken blocks can reappear due to lag, and if the player moves where the block respawned, it can provoke suffocation (for example, chopping down a tree by moving right below the trunk).
  • When water and lava meet, and create a cobblestone, stone, or obsidian block on the entity's head.
  • Standing on a grass path, under which is sand.
  • Standing over 5 blocks outside of the world border. (can be changed with /worldborder damage buffer)
  • Summoning an entity inside a block through spawn eggs, commands, or with a golem/wither structure laying down.

In Java Edition, entities take damage if too many are packed into the same space. Specifically, the maxEntityCramming gamerule defines the maximum number, above which a player or mob takes 3♥♥ suffocation damage every half-second, as long as that player or mob is pushing greater than that number of other entities. The default max number of entities in one block space is 24. Pushable entities include players, mobs, boats and minecarts.

Starvation[edit]

When the hunger bar becomes empty (), the player takes 1♥ damage every four seconds. The player stops taking starvation damage when the player eats food or the health bar drops to 10♥♥♥♥♥ on Easy difficulty or 1♥ on Normal difficulty. In Hard difficulty and on Hardcore mode, the player continues taking damage, which stops upon eating something or death by starvation.

Cactus[edit]

Players and mobs take 1♥ damage every half-second when they are touching or within the same tile-space as a cactus.

Berry bush[edit]

Sweet berry bushes deal 1♥ damage for every 10 game ticks (0.5 seconds) that a player or mob (besides foxes) is moving inside a sweet berry bush.

Fire[edit]

When mobs and players without fire immunity stand on fire, they take 2♥ damage every second and get burned. They continue burning after leaving the fire block. Fire damage can be prevented by the Fire Resistance effect. Fire duration can be decreased with the Fire Protection enchantment.

Lava[edit]

Lava is a dangerous natural occurrence. Players and mobs get burned and take damage from contact with lava at a rate of 4♥♥ every half-second, and they continue burning after they leave it. Fire Resistance nullifies both the direct damage from lava and the burning damage.

Burning[edit]

Players and many mobs burn when exposed to fire or lava or attacked by certain kinds of burning projectiles, Fire Aspect weapons, or burning zombies. Burning obstructs the player's view slightly and, unless the player or mob has Fire Resistance, inflicts damage at a rate of 1♥ per second. This is the same rate that the player gains health in Peaceful difficulty, so burning alone cannot kill the player in this mode. Burning lasts some amount of time depending on its cause, but it is extinguished by rain, water, or cauldrons.

Nether mobs with the exception of piglins, hoglins and endermen do not burn and cannot be damaged by fire. Burning is not considered a status effect and therefore cannot be cured by milk.

Magma Block[edit]

Mobs without fire immunity and players take 1♥ damage every half-second if they are walking on magma blocks. This can be avoided by having the Fire Resistance effect, sneaking or wearing Frost Walker-enchanted boots.

Campfire[edit]

Players or mobs standing on top of a campfire take 1♥ damage every 10 game ticks (0.5 seconds). Standing in a Soul Campfire does 2 damage per tick instead.

Status effects[edit]

Poison[edit]

Cave spiders and bees poison players when they attack (except on easy difficulty). Poisoning also occurs upon eating a spider eye, poisonous potato, pufferfish, or suspicious stew made out of lily of the valley. Drinking or being hit by a potion or arrow of poison also results in poisoning. While poisoned, the hearts in the health meter turn from ♥ × 10 (♥ × 10 on Hardcore) to an olive green (♥ × 10)(♥ × 10 on Hardcore) and the player takes 1♥ every 25 ticks (1.25 seconds) on level I. See Poison for a table for higher levels. The Poison itself cannot kill the player, but it can reduce them to half a heart (♥♥♥♥♥♥♥♥♥♥), thus leaving them vulnerable to damage from other sources.

Wither[edit]

Withers and wither skeletons inflict the Wither effect with their attacks (the wither skulls do not inflict the effect on easy difficulty). This darkens the health bar to ♥ × 10 on Survival and ♥ × 10 on Hardcore, while inflicting damage over time. The effect deals 1♥ every 2 seconds (40 ticks) for the wither skeleton's attack (level I), and every second for the Wither's skulls (level II). Wither rose also inflict wither to any mobs colliding it. Players also get the Wither effect after eating suspicious stew made out of wither rose or when hit by potion or arrow of decay.‌[Bedrock Edition only] Unlike Poison, withering can kill on any difficulty level, and the darkened health bar makes it harder to keep track of the damage.

Void[edit]

If one were to break through the bedrock barrier found at the bottom of worlds, the void can be seen. Players in the void below the Y-axis of -64 take damage at a rate of about 4♥♥ per half-second. The player usually dies from falling in the void, even in creative mode,‌[Java Edition only] but the player may be saved by throwing an ender pearl before falling below the Y-axis of -64. In Bedrock Edition, the player takes damage to any negative Y-axis.

Falling into the void in The End is more likely, and is the only way to access the void in Survival mode without exploiting glitches.

By using /effect to give the player Regeneration 5+ or Instant Health, they can fall infinitely into the void without dying until the effect wears off or the game crashes.‌[Java Edition only]

Explosions[edit]

Firework rocket explosion[edit]

Firework rocket explosions can deal damage to entities.

If a rocket has been crafted with a firework star, its explosion deals damage within a radius of about 412 blocks. At the edge of the radius, it deals only 1♥ damage, but this increases as the player gets closer until the explosion maxes out at its strongest: 5♥♥♥–6♥♥♥ damage at distances of 2 blocks or less, with extra 1♥—2♥ per additional firework star applied in firework rocket.

If a rocket crafted with a firework star is used to provide a speed boost while gliding with elytra, it explodes as it is used, dealing 7♥♥♥♥ damage to the player.

Achievements[edit]

Icon Achievement In-game description Actual requirements (if different) Gamerscore earned Trophy type (PS)
Monster HunterAttack and destroy a monster.Kill a hostile mob or one of the following neutral mobs: enderman, zombified piglin, spider, cave spider.15GBronze
Sniper DuelKill a Skeleton with an arrow from more than 50 meters.Use a launched arrow to kill a skeleton, wither skeleton, or a stray from 50 or more blocks away, horizontally.30GBronze
OverkillDeal nine hearts of damage in a single hit.Damage can be dealt to any mob, even those that do not have nine hearts of health overall.30GBronze
The Beginning.Kill the WitherBe within a 100.9×100.9×203.5 cuboid centered on the Wither when it drops the nether star.40GSilver
ArcherKill a creeper with arrows.10GBronze

Advancements[edit]

Icon Advancement In-game description Parent Actual requirements (if different) Namespaced ID

Advancement-fancy-raw.png

Return to Sender
Destroy a Ghast with a fireballNetherKill a ghast using a ghast fireball.nether/return_to_sender

Advancement-fancy-raw.png

Uneasy Alliance
Rescue a Ghast from the Nether, bring it safely home to the Overworld... and then kill itReturn to SenderKill a ghast while in the Overworld.nether/uneasy_alliance

Advancement-plain-raw.png

Spooky Scary Skeleton
Obtain a Wither Skeleton's skullA Terrible FortressHave a wither skeleton skull in your inventory.nether/get_wither_skull

Advancement-plain-raw.pngInvicon Nether Star.gif

Withering Heights
Summon the WitherSpooky Scary Skeletonnether/summon_wither

Advancement-plain-raw.png

Monster Hunter
Kill any hostile monsterAdventureKill one of these 33 mobs. ‌In Java Edition 1.16.2[upcoming], piglin brutes can also be killed for this advancement. Other mobs, if any, may be killed, but are ignored for this advancement.adventure/kill_a_mob

Advancement-plain-raw.png

Take Aim
Shoot something with an arrowMonster HunterUsing a bow or a crossbow, shoot an entity with an arrow, tipped arrow, or spectral arrow.adventure/shoot_arrow

Advancement-fancy-raw.png

Sniper Duel
Kill a Skeleton from at least 50 meters awayTake AimKill a skeleton with a projectile while being at least 50 blocks away horizontally.adventure/sniper_duel

Video[edit]

History[edit]

Java Edition Classic
August 18, 2009First showcased fall damage.
August 25, 2009It has been shown that the player can now hold their breath underwater for just 15 seconds.
Lava now has been shown to cause damage.
August 27, 2009Fall damage is mentioned to now be much harsher.
0.24_SURVIVAL_TESTAdded damage.
Mobs and the player now jump back when damage is taken.
Added arrows that cause damage when hitting a player.
0.25 SURVIVAL TESTArrows deal more damage.
Java Edition Infdev
20100617-2Added suffocation.
Java Edition Alpha
v1.0.4Players no longer suffocate when riding in a minecart.
Java Edition Beta
1.5Unarmed damage was increased from 1♥ to 2♥.
July 26, 2011Notch first teased how knockback would work.
1.8Pre-releaseUnarmed damage was decreased from 2♥ to 1♥.
The Adventure Update extended the combat system with critical hits, sprinting (for knockback) and blocking.
Hunger system added: Health is no longer restored directly by eating. Instead, it recovers slowly when well-fed, but is lost if starving.
Poison added, which deals damage, until the player or mob's health is 1♥.
Java Edition
1.0.0Beta 1.9 PrereleaseArmor no longer prevents certain types of damage.
Beta 1.9 Prerelease 3Sword damage was decreased (a diamond sword went from 5 hearts to 3.5 hearts damage).
Beta 1.9 Prerelease 4Enchantments added, some of which increase damage the player deals or decrease damage dealt to the player.
RC1The sound of the player taking damage was changed from a masculine oof to painful crunching sound. These were changed to remove the restriction that all avatars have a male voice, regardless of the gender of the character depicted in the skin.
1.3.112w25aRemoved the downward knockback while drowning.
12w30aExplosions damage the player different amounts in different difficulties, and the player doesn't take any damage from explosions on Peaceful.
1.3.2releaseMobs no longer shove the player when moving into them.[is this the correct version?]
1.4.212w32aMobs can hold weapons, making them deal more damage. Also, the crunching noise from 1.0.0 was changed, sounding more like a slap rather than a bone-breaking punch. The fall damage noise was also changed from a crunch to a dull, thumping noise.
12w34aWither effect added, which deals damage. Unlike Poison, withering can kill players or other mobs.
1.6.2releaseInstead of replacing the barehanded damage (1♥), swords, shovels, pickaxes and axes now add their damage onto the barehanded damage, which results in all tools doing 1♥ more damage than before.[is this the correct version?]
1.814w32aThe health bar has a new animation for damage that shows how many hearts are lost. (Not new, merely a revived feature that was lost after 1.2.5).
1.915w34aAdded attack cooldown.
15w34cTool damages and cooldowns adjusted.
Item Damage
Swords 5♥♥♥ 6♥♥♥ 7♥♥♥♥ 8♥♥♥♥
Axes [note 1] 4♥♥ 5♥♥♥ 6♥♥♥ 7♥♥♥♥
Pickaxes [note 1] 3♥♥ 4♥♥ 5♥♥♥ 6♥♥♥
Shovels [note 1] 2♥ 3♥♥ 4♥♥ 5♥♥♥
  1. a b c dealing damage with an axe, pick, or shovel decreases its durability by 2.
15w35aTool damages and cooldowns adjusted again.
15w47bAdded sounds for critical hits, fully-charged and not-fully-charged attacks, blocked attacks, sweep attacks and dealing knockback.
16w02aCooldown damage reduction formula adjusted, reduction is now linear 50%–100% rather than quadratic 0%–100%.
16w05aCooldown damage reduction formula adjusted again, reduction is now quadratic 20%–100%.
1.1318w07aAdded a new weapon: tridents. These can be either thrown or used in melee combat, and deal 9♥♥♥♥♥ damage.
1.1418w43aAdded a new weapon: Crossbow.
Pocket Edition Alpha
0.2.0Added Survival mode and mobs, making damage possible.
0.11.0build 1Poison added, which deals damage, until the player or mob's health is 1♥.
0.12.1build 1Added critical hits.
Punch damage is now added to damage from swords, axes, pickaxes, and shovels.
Hunger system added: Health is no longer restored directly by eating. Instead, it recovers slowly when well-fed, but is lost if starving.
Wither effect added, which deals damage. Unlike Poison, withering can kill players or other mobs.
Mobs can hold weapons, making them deal more damage.
Enchantments added, some of which increase damage the player deals or decrease damage dealt to the player.
?The sound of the player taking damage was changed from a masculine oof to painful crunching sound. These were changed to remove the restriction that all avatars have a male voice, regardless of the gender of the character depicted in the skin.
build 12Critical hits now have more particles.
Bedrock Edition
1.4.0beta 1.2.13.8Added a new weapon: tridents. These can be either thrown or used in melee combat, and deal 9♥♥♥♥♥ damage.
1.8.0beta 1.8.0.10Added a new weapon: crossbow.

Trivia[edit]

  • Critical hits can be done while reflecting a ghast fireball, but does not change the damage or speed of it.
  • In Creative mode, attacking a mob while flying after having descended scores a critical hit.
  • In the Legacy Console Edition, the player can take only void damage in the End.
  • The maximum damage that can be dealt by a player in survival is
    • Melee attack:
      • In Java Edition
        • 36.5♥ × 18.25 damage, consisting of 10♥♥♥♥♥ from a netherite axe + 6♥♥♥ from Strength II, all × 1.5♥ with critical, + 12.5♥ × 6.25 damage from Smite V on an undead target, or Bane of Arthropods V on an arthropod.
        • The maximum on a non-undead non-arthropod target is only 25.5♥ × 12.75: 9♥♥♥♥♥ from a stone, iron, or diamond axe + 6♥♥♥ from Strength II, all × 1.5♥ with critical, + 3♥♥ damage from Sharpness V. A full set of Protection IV diamond armor would reduce the 25.5♥ × 12.75 damage to 4.1769♥♥♥.
  1. REDIRECT Template:Explain
      • In Bedrock Edition
        • Maximum damage to undeads or arthropods is 41.25♥ × 20.625 damage, consisting of 8♥♥♥♥ from diamond sword + 12.5♥ × 6.25 from Smite V for undead mobs or Bane of Arthropods V for arthropod mobs + 7♥♥♥♥ from strength II, all x 1.5♥ with critical.
        • Maximum damage to non-undead and non-arthoropod on land is 31.875♥ × 15.9375 damage, consisting of 8♥♥♥♥ from diamond sword + 6.25♥♥♥♥ from Sharpness V + 7♥♥♥♥ from Strength II all x 1.5♥ with critical.
        • Maximum damage to mob/player on water or during rain is 42.75♥ × 21.375 damage, consisting of 9♥♥♥♥♥ of melee trident + 12.5♥ × 6.25 from Impaling V during rain or when on water + 7♥♥♥♥ from strength II, all x 1.5♥ with critical. (Also work with riptide)
    • Ranged attack:
      • With Bow
        • Maximum damage to player and non-undead mobs is 37♥ × 18.5 damage, consisting of 25♥ × 12.5 from a critical shot from a bow with the power V enchantment + 12♥ × 6 from an arrow of harming II. This is sufficient to kill most mobs (and players) in one hit.
        • Maximum damage to undead mobs is 33♥ × 16.5 damage, consisting of 25♥ × 12.5 from a critical shot from a bow with the power V enchantment + 8♥♥♥♥ from an arrow of healing II.
      • With Crossbow
        • Maximum damage to player and non-undead mobs is 64♥ × 32 damage, consisting of a single shot of three arrows of harming II from multishot enchantment that hit single mobs. Two of the arrows deal 9♥♥♥♥♥ damage while one of them deals 10♥♥♥♥♥ + 36♥ × 18 damage from instant damage II effect (12♥ × 6 per arrow).
        • Maximum damage to undead mobs is 52♥ × 26 damage, consisting of a single shot of three arrows of healing II from multishot enchantment that hit single mobs. Two of the arrows deal 9♥♥♥♥♥ damage while one of them deals 10♥♥♥♥♥ + 24♥ × 12 damage from instant health II effect (8♥♥♥♥ per arrow).
  • With all possible reductions to fall damage currently available in Survival (landing on a hay bale, Feather Falling IV boots, Protection IV on other armor pieces, and Resistance IV from a Potion of the Turtle Master) the maximum height the player can fall while surviving without Absorption is 2504 blocks. However, slow falling completely negates fall damage.

References[edit]