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This feature is exclusive to Java Edition, Bedrock Edition and PlayStation 4 Edition.

Villagers are passive mobs that inhabit villages, work at their professions, breed, and interact. Their clothing varies according to their occupation. A player can trade with villagers, using emeralds as currency.


Natural generation[edit]

Villagers spawn in the houses with beds of their villages, which spawn in several biomes such as plains, snowy tundras, savannas, deserts, taigas, and snowy taiga.

A cleric villager and cleric zombie villager spawn locked up in the basements of igloos, under the carpet of the floor. In Bedrock Edition, the villager and zombie villager inside igloo basements have random professions instead of always being clerics.


Villagers will breed depending on the time of the day, but new baby villagers need beds and the adult villagers need to be willing in order to spawn baby villagers. After exactly 20 minutes, the baby villager will grow up into an adult. If a villager dies to a non-mob, non-player source while a player is within 16 blocks (spherical radius), or if a monster kills a villager, then no villager in the village will breed for approximately 3 minutes.

The breeding depends on the number of valid beds. If a villager is "willing" (see below), villagers will breed as long as the population is less than 100% of valid beds. All baby villagers are initially unemployed. Willing villagers reproduce as long as there are unclaimed beds available within the limits of the village.

A census is periodically taken to determine the current population of the village. All villagers within the horizontal boundary of the village and within 5 vertical blocks‌[Java and Legacy Console editions only] of the center will be counted as part of the population to determine if continued villager mating is allowed. However, any villager within the horizontal boundary of the village and within the spherical boundary of the village will attempt to enter mating mode as long as there is at least one villager within the boundary. If two villagers simultaneously enter mating mode while they are close to one another, they will breed with each other and produce a child.


Villagers must be "willing" in order to breed. After mating, they will no longer be willing, and must be made willing again.

Villagers need to have enough beds within village bounds for baby villagers to spawn.

Villagers can become willing by having either 3 bread, 12 carrots, 12 potatoes, or 12 beetroots[not in Java Edition][1] in one stack in their inventory. Any villager with an excess of food (usually farmers) will throw food to other villagers, allowing them to pick it up and obtain enough food to become willing. The player can also throw bread, carrots, beetroots, or potatoes at the villagers themselves to encourage breeding. Villagers will consume the required food upon becoming willing. This works only when /gamerule mobGriefing is true or villagers won't pick up the food.


Villagers will spawn if a player uses a splash potion of weakness on a zombie villager and then feeds it a regular golden apple. It will then shake and turn into a villager within 2-5 minutes. During the change, the zombie villager will behave as normal.


Zombie villagers[edit]

When a zombie kills a villager, it can turn the villager into a zombie villager, depending on the difficulty: 0% chance on easy, 50% chance on normal and 100% chance on hard. Zombie villagers also spawn naturally in the Overworld in the same conditions as a normal zombie, although much less commonly. Zombie villagers also spawn in zombie villages.


An illusioner attacking villagers.

Illagers are hostile villager-like mobs that spawn in woodland mansions as well as pillager outposts, illager patrols, or raids. There are four(five) kinds: vindicators, evokers, pillagers, illusioners, ravagers, along with two associated mobs: vexes and ravagers[Java and Bedrock editions only]. Pillagers are considered to be outcasts from villages.[2] In addition to attacking players, they will also attack villagers, wandering traders and iron golems. In Bedrock Edition, illagers will not attack baby villagers, however baby villagers still run away from them.


Witches are hostile, villager-like mobs, which spawn in the overworld according to the usual mob spawning rules. They can also spawn in witch huts, or spawn from a villager struck by lightning. Witches may also spawn as a part of raids.

Wandering trader[edit]

Wandering traders spawn randomly around the world in Java Edition, or periodically in village gathering sites in Bedrock Edition. Two trader llamas spawn leashed to the wandering trader. Players may use emeralds to buy items from wandering traders, but cannot trade items for emeralds. Like villagers, wandering traders are attacked by most zombie variants, illagers, ravagers[Java Edition only], and vexes.


NPCs are villager-like mobs in Education Edition and Bedrock Edition.


Both baby and adult villagers drop no items nor experience upon death, regardless of the cause.


Movement patterns[edit]

Nitwit and unemployed villagers will leave their homes at day and begin to explore the village. Generally, they wander aimlessly inside the village during the day. They may go indoors or outdoors, and they periodically make mumbling sounds. Occasionally, two villagers may stop and turn to look at each other, in a behavior called socializing, in which they will stare at another villager for 4-5 seconds at a time. In the case of players, they will continuously stare at them as long as the player is close enough, unless the villager tries to get into a house at night, farm food, work or flee from a zombie or illager.

In Java Edition and Bedrock Edition, villagers do not stop continuously in front of players, though they still do stare as they move. They will also sprint away if the player attacks them.

Villagers, like other mobs, will find paths around obstructions, avoiding walking off cliffs and some blocks that cause harm. However, in crowded situations, it is possible for one villager to push another off a cliff or into harm.

Villagers will run inside at night or during rain, closing doors behind them. They will attempt to sleep at night, but if they cannot claim a bed, they will stay indoors until morning. In the morning they will head outside and resume normal behavior.

Villagers will run away from zombies, vindicators, pillagers, ravagers, and vexes within 8 blocks, and evokers within 12 blocks.

If a villager finds itself outside the village boundary, or a villager without a village detects a village boundary within 32 blocks, it will move quickly back within the boundary. A villager taken more than 32 blocks away from its village boundary will forget the village within about 6 seconds. Whether in a village or not, a villager is never prone to despawning.

Villagers cannot open trapdoors, fence gates, or iron doors.

In Legacy Console Edition, there is evidence that villagers are prone to overcrowding certain areas of a village while leaving other areas completely empty. When moving inside, the AI prefers doors within 16 blocks (Euclidean distance). It also tends to prefer doors with fewer villagers nearby, however "nearby" in this case is only 1.5 blocks and, when moving inside, villagers prefer to move 2.5 blocks inside when the inside is to the south or east and therefore will be out of range of this check. During the day, it has been observed that villagers tend to cluster near a trapped villager or any existing large cluster of villagers, likely due to the "socialize" AI routine overriding their inclination to wander. Conversely, in Java Edition and Bedrock Edition, villagers have a set schedule in which they socialize and mingle at gathering sites (near a bell) at midday.

Job site blocks[edit]

In Java Edition and Bedrock Edition, villagers (other than babies and nitwits) seek employment by searching a 48 block radius[verify] for a job site block. An unemployed villager acquires a profession and a job by claiming the first unclaimed job site block it can detect in that area. A job site block can be immediately detected regardless of placement, reachability or even visibility, as long as it is in range and not already claimed. When the block is claimed, its owner emits green particles‌[Bedrock Edition only] and no other villager can claim it unless the owner relinquishes it.

If a job site block is broken or destroyed, its owner (if any) emits anger particles‌[Bedrock Edition only] and becomes jobless, but retains its profession if it has been traded with. Otherwise, the villager will become unemployed unless there is another job site within its detection radius. A villager who already has a profession but no job site will try to find one:

  • A novice level villager (one who has only its first tier trades unlocked) can claim any job site block and will change its profession along with acquiring a new job.
  • Villagers above the novice level can only claim a job site block associated with their profession.

Villagers can only change professions during the day, even if it has job sites it can claim.


A feature necessary for iron golem spawning and some villager behavior is spreading gossip. Villagers will acquire pieces of gossip through various means, and will spread them to other villagers when they converse. There are six types of gossip: major_negative, minor_negative, major_positive, minor_positive, trading, and golem, although minor_positive does not naturally appear in the game.

Some villager gossip affects the reputation of the player when the villager spreads it to others. A villager generates minor_negative gossip if it is attacked by a player, major_negative gossip if it is killed by a player (which is immediately lost with its death), major_positive gossip if it is cured by a player, and trading gossip if a player traded with the villager. Negative reputation will make villagers increase their prices for the player in question, while positive reputation will make villagers lower prices. Overall reputation will also cause or prevent attacks from the village iron golems.[needs testing]

Villagers will also generate golem gossip on their own.[more information needed] If a villager has gossiped with five other villagers about a golem and the gossip is strong enough (greater than 30), an iron golem will try to spawn within a 16×6×16 area around the villager who originally spread the gossip. If that spot is obstructed the spawn will fail, but if it succeeds each of those gossip values are set to negative.

Each piece of gossip has a type, a target, and a strength or "value". For golem gossips the target is the villager who came up with the gossip. For reputation gossips, the target is the player who caused the gossip. If a piece of gossip would be generated in or spread to a villager, but the villager already has a piece of gossip with the same type and target, the existing gossip's strength will be increased instead. If the gossip has a high strength then villagers will be more likely to act on the gossip over other types of gossip. For example, if a villager has a golem gossip value of 30 or higher and another villager has a trading gossip value of 10–29 (and the iron golem gossip has been spread to at least five other villagers), the golem gossip will be prioritized over the trading gossip and an iron golem will spawn instead of villager trade prices decreasing. This effect also seems to decrease the competing gossip's value, sometimes to negative.[needs testing]

Picking up items[edit]

Villagers have eight hidden inventory slots, which start empty whenever the villager is spawned. Villagers will not intentionally seek out items to pick up, but they will collect any bread, carrots, potatoes, wheat, wheat seeds, beetroot and beetroot seeds they happen to come within range of. These are the only items they are able to pick up, though the player may use the /replaceitem command to put an arbitrary item into a villager's inventory. If a player and a villager are in the pickup range of an item at the same time, the player will always pick it up first.

Villagers will never drop the items in their inventory upon death.

Any items in their inventory are lost if a villager becomes a zombie villager; as zombie villager has no inventory slots.

If /gamerule mobGriefing is false, villagers will not pick up items.

A dispenser can be used, if adjacent to a villager, to place armor on it. While not visible in most cases (other than pumpkins and mob heads) the equipment will be fully functional; for example, villagers with an armor piece enchanted with Thorns will do Thorns damage to any enemy that attacks it.

Sharing food[edit]

If a villager has enough food in one inventory stack (6 bread or 24 carrots, potatoes, beetroots, or 18 wheat for farmers only) and sees a villager without enough food in one inventory stack (3 bread or 12 carrots, potatoes or beetroot for non-Farmers; 15 bread, 60 carrots, potatoes, or beetroot, or 45 wheat for Farmers), the villager may decide to share food with that villager.

To share, a villager finds his first inventory stack with at least 4 bread, carrots, potatoes, or beetroot or with at least 6 wheat, and then throws half the stack (rounded down) in the direction of the target villager. When wheat is shared, it is first crafted to bread which may result in 1 or 2 less than half the stack being shared.


Adult and baby brown-robed villagers ‌[LCE only] or villagers wearing a straw hat‌[JE & BE only] will tend crops within the village boundary. Villagers far enough outside the boundary of any village will also tend nearby crops.

Farmland to be tended is found by seeking for certain blocks up to 15 blocks away from the villager in the X and Z coordinates and up to 1 away in the Y coordinate (a 31×31×3 area total).

  • If a brown-robed villager‌[LCE only] or villager with straw hat‌[BE & JE only] does not have enough food in one stack in his inventory (15 bread, 60 carrots, potatoes, or beetroot, or 45 wheat) and finds fully-grown wheat, carrots, potatoes, or beetroot, he will move to the crop block and break it.
  • If a brown-robed villager‌[LCE only] or villager with straw hat‌[BE & JE only] has any seeds, carrots, potatoes, or beetroot seeds in his inventory and finds an air block above farmland, he will move to it and plant a crop. They will always plant from the first eligible slot in their inventory.
  • If /gamerule mobGriefing is false, villagers will not be able to farm.

Baby villagers[edit]

Baby villagers will sprint around, entering and leaving houses at will. They will sometimes stop sprinting to stare at an Iron Golem. If the Iron Golem is holding a poppy, the children will cautiously take the flower from its hands. They tend to group and chase one another around the village as if playing tag. They also jump on beds.

Baby villagers will give gifts of poppies or seeds to players who have the Hero of the Village effect.

Baby villagers in Bedrock Edition have a slightly bigger head than in Java Edition and Legacy Console Edition; this also can be seen in other baby mobs in the game as well.‌[Bedrock Edition only]


Zombies will try to find and attack villagers within a 42 block radius (even when the villager is invisible), and will attempt to break down doors. Zombies will only successfully break doors if the difficulty is set to hard, though only a fraction of zombies spawned in hard mode have the capacity to break doors. Villagers will run away from zombies, sometimes hiding in houses. The villager's only "natural" defense are the iron golems, which attack nearby hostile mobs.

Zombies will try to kill villagers, or convert them to zombie villagers. The chance that the villager will become a zombie villager on death is 0% on Easy, 50% on Normal, and 100% on Hard. Baby villagers can be infected by zombies as well.

Although zombie pigmen do not attack villagers, villagers will still run from them.

Drowned will chase and attack villagers in the same way zombies will, and villagers will run from drowned in the same way they run from zombies. Drowned can also convert villagers to zombie villagers, even when attacking from a distance with a trident.


When lightning strikes within 3–4 blocks of a villager, it will turn into a witch.


During a raid, villagers will run away from illagers and run to the nearest house, similar to a zombie siege. For a villager to hide, the house must have a door.

Before the first raid wave, at least one villager will rush to ring the bell in the center of the village (if they are close enough) to warn the other villagers of an incoming raid before going into their house.

A villager will often stay in the house it ran to, but may exit its house occasionally. The player will still be able to trade with villagers during the raid.

On random occasions the villager will display water particles as if sweating.

Once the player gains the Hero of the Village status after defeating a raid, villagers will lower their trade prices and throw gifts to the player relating to their profession. For a list of items they can gift, see Hero of the Village § Gifts.


In Java and Bedrock editions, villagers have set schedules depending on their age and employment status. Schedules define the villager's goals, which mostly determine how they behave throughout the day. However, their goals can be interrupted by higher priority behaviors most villagers have, such as fleeing from an attack, trading, and getting out of the rain.

Time (ticks) Employed Unemployed Child Nitwit
00000 Work / Breeding Wander Play Sleep
02000 Work Wander
08000 Gather Gather
10000 Work Wander
11000 Home / Breeding Home Home
12000 Sleep Sleep Sleep
13000 Home
14000 Sleep


Employed villagers will spend most of their day standing next to their job site blocks. From time to time they will "gather supplies" by wandering a short distance away, then returning.

Some professions have additional job-specific goals that are part of their work schedule:

  • Farmers harvest and sow crops.
  • Fishermen have a custom schedule that allows them to have a job-specific goal, but currently none is defined.
  • Librarians inspect bookshelves.

When a villager can reach its own job site block, it will resupply itself (unlock its locked trades). They can resupply twice per day, morning and afternoon, even without having a bed or while sitting in a minecart. A villager can "reach" its job site block if the block is in any of the 8 directly adjacent or diagonal block spaces horizontally around him at the height of their feet, or at the 9 blocks below that. A villager can still "reach" it diagonally, even if he can't actually see or touch a face of the block.


All villagers wander from time to time, but for the unemployed, wandering is their main goal because it maximizes their ability to find a job site block they can claim (thereby becoming employed). A wandering villager chooses a random block and walks toward it, then stands there for a variable amount of time before wandering again. If at any time it detects a job site block it can claim, it does so, assumes the skin for the associated profession, and immediately begins following the appropriate schedule.

A villager attempts to claim a job site block by finding a path to a block next to one, showing angry particles when unable to reach it. After a villager fails to reach the job site block several times, it becomes unclaimed, indicated by showing angry particles on it. The villager loses its job site block and eventually becomes jobless if the villager is at novice-level and no nearby job site block is available. Any other nearby jobless villager has a chance to become the block's new owner. If there are no jobless villagers nearby, then the villager who lost the job site block will seek for another unclaimed one, or try to reclaim the same unreachable one in an endless loop (this also happens for claiming beds).

The wander schedule includes a job-specific goal called "exploring the outskirts" that causes villagers to wander near the edges of the village. This enables them to detect new beds, job site blocks, and bells that players have used to extend the village.


Late in the day, adult villagers (other than nitwits) gather at a meeting place (the area around a bell). When two villagers encounter one another, they mingle (look at each other and "converse" using unique sounds). They may also share food, or breed if both are willing.

If a villager isn't close enough to detect a bell, it wanders randomly, searching for one.


Villager children chasing one another.

Baby villagers wander randomly searching for others to play with. When they find one, the two of them will follow each other for a while and sometimes run as if racing or chasing each other.

Baby villagers wander randomly searching for beds, when they find one they will start to jump on top of it.

They will sometimes stop to stare at an Iron Golem. If the Iron Golem holds out a poppy, the baby villager will cautiously accept it.

Returning home[edit]

All villagers except Nitwits head home a short time before sunset and Nitwits go home after sunset. They roam around for a while, eventually targeting a block beside their bed. Once they reach it, they will not go through a door again before sleeping.

A villager who has no bed simply wanders in search of one it can claim.


A villager "sleeping" in a bed at night.

At sunset, most villagers lie down in their beds and remain there until morning. (Nitwits stay up later at night and get up later in the morning.) They will get up early if used, attacked, woken up, or if their bed is broken or a player uses it. If possible, they will go back to bed after the interruption. When villagers successfully sleep, they will heal themselves when waking up at dawn.

Villagers who have no beds continue wandering and searching for a bed they can claim.


All plains biome variant professions (except unemployed) corresponding to their different job site blocks.

Each villager can have a profession, which can be identified by their clothing as well as by the title at the top of the trading interface. A villager can choose their profession by claiming a job site block. When they go to work, they use their daily schedule to get to their claimed job site block. Some professions, like farmers and librarians, do other things. Farmers plant crops, and librarians can inspect bookshelves.

A job site block can only be claimed if it isn't already claimed by another villager and if they are inside a village boundary with at least 1 bed. If their job site block is removed, they will either change to another profession or become unemployed, but only if the player didn't trade with the villager before. In that case, it keeps its profession and changes its job site only to blocks matching its profession. This means that as soon as the player traded with the villager once, it will keep its profession forever.

Nitwit and unemployed baby villagers cannot change profession.

Novice-level villagers can lose their profession and change into unemployed villagers.

Unemployed adults will actively seek for an unclaimed job site block and change into the corresponding profession.

Below is a table listing the various professions, along with the specific job site block that each profession requires:


Job Site Block
Desert Jungle
[note 1]
Plains Savanna Snowy Swamp
[note 1]
Desert Villager Base.png Jungle Villager Base.png Plains Villager Base.png Savanna Villager Base.png Snowy Villager Base.png Swamp Villager Base.png Taiga Villager Base.png Unemployed N/A
Desert Armorer.png Jungle Armorer.png Plains Armorer.png Savanna Armorer.png Snowy Armorer.png Swamp Armorer.png Taiga Armorer.png Armorer Blast furnace
Desert Butcher.png Jungle Butcher.png Plains Butcher.png Savanna Butcher.png Snowy Butcher.png Swamp Butcher.png Taiga Butcher.png Butcher Smoker
Desert Cartographer.png Jungle Cartographer.png Plains Cartographer.png Savanna Cartographer.png Snowy Cartographer.png Swamp Cartographer.png Taiga Cartographer.png Cartographer Cartography table
Desert Cleric.png Jungle Cleric.png Plains Cleric.png Savanna Cleric.png Snowy Cleric.png Swamp Cleric.png Taiga Cleric.png Cleric Brewing stand
Desert Farmer.png Jungle Farmer.png Plains Farmer.png Savanna Farmer.png Snowy Farmer.png Swamp Farmer.png Taiga Farmer.png Farmer Composter
Desert Fisherman.png Jungle Fisherman.png Plains Fisherman.png Savanna Fisherman.png Snowy Fisherman.png Swamp Fisherman.png Taiga Fisherman.png Fisherman Barrel
Desert Fletcher.png Jungle Fletcher.png Plains Fletcher.png Savanna Fletcher.png Snowy Fletcher.png Swamp Fletcher.png Taiga Fletcher.png Fletcher Fletching table
Desert Leatherworker.png Jungle Leatherworker.png Plains Leatherworker.png Savanna Leatherworker.png Snowy Leatherworker.png Swamp Leatherworker.png Taiga Leatherworker.png Leatherworker Cauldron
Desert Librarian.png Jungle Librarian.png Plains Librarian.png Savanna Librarian.png Snowy Librarian.png Swamp Librarian.png Taiga Librarian.png Librarian Lectern
Desert Stone Mason.png Jungle Stone Mason.png Plains Stone Mason.png Savanna Stone Mason.png Snowy Stone Mason.png Swamp Stone Mason.png Taiga Stone Mason.png Stone Mason‌[BE only]

Mason‌[JE only]

Desert Nitwit.png Jungle Nitwit.png Plains Nitwit.png Savanna Nitwit.png Snowy Nitwit.png Swamp Nitwit.png Taiga Nitwit.png Nitwit N/A
Desert Shepherd.png Jungle Shepherd.png Plains Shepherd.png Savanna Shepherd.png Snowy Shepherd.png Swamp Shepherd.png Taiga Shepherd.png Shepherd Loom
Desert Toolsmith.png Jungle Toolsmith.png Plains Toolsmith.png Savanna Toolsmith.png Snowy Toolsmith.png Swamp Toolsmith.png Taiga Toolsmith.png Toolsmith Smithing table
Desert Weaponsmith.png Jungle Weaponsmith.png Plains Weaponsmith.png Savanna Weaponsmith.png Snowy Weaponsmith.png Swamp Weaponsmith.png Taiga Weaponsmith.png Weaponsmith Grindstone
  1. a b Jungle and Swamp villagers can only be spawned in their corresponding biome by using spawn eggs, breeding, or by curing zombie villagers, as no villages generate there. An occasional jungle or swamp villager may spawn in these biomes however, if their village overlaps from another biome.


Jens Bergensten Mojang avatar.png

It started because players could summon villagers without a career by using commands: it was the only way to get villagers with green robes. Whenever we discover we have a bug which is used by the community we just see it as 'undefined behaviour' - and 'fix' it by making it a feature. In this case we just needed a profession for the green-robed villager. I don't remember what name we came up with first - I think it was 'unemployed' or something, but it doesn't really fit in the world, because I don't really think the other villagers are employed by anyone either. So I think the next suggestion was 'village idiot' but I thought 'nitwit' was a more fun name.

Jeb about the Nitwit[3]

Nitwit villagers wear green robes. They cannot acquire a profession, trade, or gather around bells. They wander around the village for about 2000 ticks after other villagers go to sleep, before seeking a bed. If they can claim a bed, they arise in the morning 2000 ticks after the rest of the village wakes up. A villager cannot change into a nitwit.


Villagers and zombie villagers have seven skin types corresponding to the biome they spawn in. Their appearance also varies based on their profession and their five tiers. They show which trade tier they have unlocked by a badge of a varying material on their belt. A new tier is obtained every time a player trades with a villager and the badge appears as stone, then iron, gold, emerald and finally diamond. In Bedrock Edition villagers only have three badge tiers: iron, gold, and diamond.

Villagers have different outfits depending on the biome where they spawned, which are:

Villagers have 15 professions, which are as follows:

  • Farmer (straw hat)
  • Fisherman (fisher hat)
  • Shepherd (brown hat with white apron)
  • Fletcher (hat with feather and quiver on the back)
  • Cleric (purple apron and creeper cloak)
  • Weaponsmith (pirate eyepatch and black apron)
  • Armorer (welding mask)
  • Toolsmith (black apron)
  • Librarian (eyeglasses with book as a hat)
  • Cartographer (golden monocle)
  • Leatherworker (brown apron and brown gloves)
  • Butcher (red headband and white apron)
  • Stone Mason‌[Bedrock Edition only]/Mason‌[Java Edition only] (black apron and black gloves)
  • Nitwit (green coated)
  • Unemployed (no overlay, base clothing of biome without extra features)


The old (prior to 1.14) trading interface displaying a trade of 28 paper for 1 emerald.
Villager badge changes color depending on the level of the villager. From left to right: stone (novice), iron (apprentice), gold (journeyman), emerald (expert), and diamond (master).
Marsh Davies Mojang avatar.png

Right click on a villager and you can trade with them, offering them emeralds in exchange for better equipment, maps to notable treasures or food. Unless you are trying to trade with a nitwit, of course, in which case you’re going to get squat. Who’s the nitwit now?

Marsh Davies[4]

The trading system is a gameplay mechanic that allows players to buy and sell various items to and from villagers, using emeralds as a currency. Their trades can be good or bad, depending on what the cost is and what items the player might get. Trading is only available for adult villagers with professions; the player cannot trade with nitwits, unemployed villagers, or baby villagers.

Using a villager that has a profession will allow a player to trade with them, making offers based on their profession and profession level. All offers involve emeralds as a currency, and some item related to the villager's profession. Trading can allow the acquisition of items that would otherwise be difficult to obtain, such as enchanted books with "treasure" enchantments (e.g. Mending) and bottles o' enchanting. When villagers get a new trade, pink particles and green cross particles appear. When a villager gives off particles from a new trade, they get 10 seconds of Regeneration I (totaling to 4 (Heart.svgHeart.svg) of restoration)[verify].

Completing a trade with a villager will progress its profession level slightly. As it advances through its profession, the villager will offer additional trades.

The villager's supply of an item is exhausted, and the trade is temporarily locked, after the player has traded for that item a maximum allowable number of times. A player can continue to trade for the villager's other available items, if any. Exhausted items are restocked when the villager works at a job site, up to twice per day. In Bedrock Edition the price of an item can rise and fall with demand, rising when resupplied and falling after at least a day without trades.[verify]

Trade offering[edit]

Several villagers offering trade items to a player. Note the unemployed villager.

In Java Edition and Bedrock Edition when a player is holding an item near a villager who wants that item, the villager will hold up an item it offers in trade for it. For example, if a villager will buy 20 wheat for one emerald and the player is holding wheat, the villager will hold up an emerald, offering it to the player. If the villager has more than one trade for an item, it will cycle through the trades, offering a different item every few seconds. This kind of trading interaction makes it easier to find villagers who offer a particular trade, but the player must still open the trading interface to complete the trade.

Economic trade[edit]

In Bedrock Edition and Java Edition, villagers have levels and require experience to unlock the next tiers of trade; level 1 is novice, level 2 is apprentice, level 3 is journeyman, level 4 is expert, and level 5 is master. They cannot resupply trades instantly and it can only be done using the /resupply command‌[Bedrock Edition only] (however this command does not work due to a bug), although villagers can resupply themselves by working more at their job site block.

If villagers change their profession, their experience bar and locked trades still remain the same and is saved to their NBT data, ex: weaponsmith villager has empty iron axe supply, and change into shepherd, when they change again to weaponsmith, iron axe trades still locked. However once leveled up, the villager cannot change their profession.


Villagers will increase their prices of trades if a player's popularity is low, (e.g from damaging villagers), and decrease it if their popularity is high (e.g from trading with multiple villagers).‌[Java Edition only]

Hero of the Village[edit]

When a player receives Hero of the Village, players will be instantly discounted on all items traded by villagers. They will also be showered with gifts, each villager throwing gifts related to their profession.

Data values[edit]


Java Edition:

Entity Namespaced ID
Villager villager

Bedrock Edition:

Entity Namespaced ID Numeric ID
Villager villager 15
(New) Villager villager_v2 115

Entity data[edit]

Villagers have entity data associated with them that contain various properties of the mob.

  • Entity data
    • Tags common to all entities see Template:Nbt inherit/entity/template
    • Tags common to all mobs see Template:Nbt inherit/mob/template
    • Additional fields for mobs that can breed see Template:Nbt inherit/breedable/template
    •  Willing: 1 or 0 (true/false) - true if the villager is willing to mate. Becomes true after certain trades (those which would cause offers to be refreshed), and false after mating.
    •  VillagerData: Information about the villager’s type, profession, and level.
      •  level: The current xp level of this villager's profession. Influences the trading options generated by the villager. If it is greater than their profession's maximum level, no new offers are generated. Increments when the villager fills his trading xp bar. Also used for badge rendering.
      •  profession: A namespaced ID value indicating the villager's profession.
      •  type: A namespaced ID value indicating the villager's type.
    •  Gossips: Pieces of gossip that can be exchanged between villagers when they meet.
      • A piece of gossip.
        •  Type: An ID value indicating the type of gossip. The possible values are major_negative, minor_negative, major_positive, minor_positive, trading, and golem.
        •  Value: The strength of the gossip.
        •  TargetMost The most significant half of the target's UUID. Joined with TargetLeast to form the full UUID. For major_negative, minor_negative, major_positive, minor_positive, and trading, the target is the player who caused the gossip. For golem, the target is the villager who started the gossip.
        •  TargetLeast The least significant half of the target's UUID. Joined with TargetMost to form the full UUID.
    •  LastRestock: The last tick the villager went to their job site block to resupply their trades.
    •  LastGossipDelay:‌[upcoming: JE 1.14.3] [more information needed]
    •  Xp: How much experience the villager currently has, increases with trading in various amounts.
    •  Inventory: Each compound tag in this list is an item in the villager's inventory, up to a maximum of 8 slots. Items in two or more slots that can be stacked together will automatically be condensed into one slot. If there are more than 8 slots, the last slot will be removed until the total is 8. If there are 9 slots but two previous slots can be condensed, the last slot will be present after the two other slots are combined.
    •  Offers: Is generated when the trading menu is opened for the first time.
      •  Recipes: List of trade options.
        • A trade option.
          •  rewardExp: 1 or 0 (true/false) - Whether this trade will provide XP orb drops. All trades from naturally-generated villagers in Java Edition reward XP orbs.
          •  maxUses: The maximum number of times this trade can be used before it is disabled. Increases by a random amount from 2 to 12 when offers are refreshed.
          •  uses: The number of times this trade has been used. The trade becomes disabled when this is greater or equal to maxUses.
          •  buy: The first 'cost' item, without the Slot tag.
          •  buyB: Optional. The second 'cost' item, without the Slot tag.
          •  sell: The item being sold for each set of cost items, without the Slot tag.
          •  xp: How much experience the villager gets from this trade.
          •  priceMultiplier: The multiplier on the  demand price adjuster; the final adjusted price will be added to the first 'cost' item's price.
          •  specialPrice: A modifier added to the original price of the first 'cost' item.
          •  demand: The price adjuster of the first 'cost' item based on demand. Updated when a villager resupply.

Villager type


Villager profession



Icon Achievement In-game description Actual requirements (if different) Availability Xbox points earned Trophy type (PS)
Xbox PS Bedrock Nintendo
The HagglerMine or purchase 30 Emeralds.Acquire or spend 30 Emeralds by trading with villagers.Xbox OneYesYesYes30GSilver
Xbox 360Alt20G
Treasure HunterAcquire a map from a cartographer villager, then enter the revealed structureVisit the structure indicated while the purchased map is in your main hand (hotbar).NoNoYesNo40G
Buy Low, Sell HighTrade for the best possible price.NoPS4YesNo50GGold
Master TraderTrade for 1,000 emeraldsObtain 1,000 emeralds from trading with villagers.NoNoYesNo30G


Icon Advancement In-game description Parent Actual requirements (if different) Internal ID
Advancement-plain-raw.png What a Deal!Successfully trade with a VillagerAdventureTake an item from a villager's trading output slot, and put it in your inventory.minecraft:adventure/trade
Advancement-plain-raw.png Very Very FrighteningStrike a Villager with lightningA Throwaway JokeHit a villager with lightning created by a trident with the Channeling enchantment.minecraft:adventure/very_very_frightening



Java Edition
1.0.0Beta 1.9 PrereleaseAdded villagers with the same AI as pigs and had the name "TESTIFICATE" displayed over their heads as player names are displayed in multiplayer. They had 5 main professions (0, 1, 2, 3, 4), and other profession numbers were a green-robed unnamed villager.
"We added them in 2011, but in the beginning they were completely useless - you couldn't trade with them, they didn’t have any sound effects or anything. Their only purpose was to live in the villages. We discussed a lot about what they would do - we knew we wanted trading, but we weren't sure about what would happen with the village itself. Would the player do quests around the village? Would it expand?"Jeb[4]
Beta 1.9 Prerelease 2Removed "TESTIFICATE" name above villager's heads.
1.111w49aAdded Villager spawn egg in Creative mode. Only farmer Villagers were spawned.
1.2.112w05aVillagers can now open and close doors.
Villagers will now go inside at night and detect houses.
12w06aVillagers can now socialize with each other and passive mobs.
Villagers are now attacked by and run away from zombies.
12w07aVillagers will now repopulate villages by the number of houses there are.
Villager children will sprint.
1.3.112w18aVillagers spawned via a spawn egg will now have a random profession.
12w21aAdded trading with villagers. Leaving a trading window open will cause villagers not to wander under normal circumstances.
12w22aVillagers will now reassign their profession if there is a lack of a specific profession or if the number of villagers in a profession is unbalanced (i.e., if there are many Farmer villagers and no Blacksmith villagers, one will change its skin, showing it has changed its profession).
Trading has also been changed where an extra input space has been added where tools can be placed for buying enchantments and/or repair.
12w25aVillagers may remove a trade option after it has been used at least 3 times.
12w26aAlthough requiring external tools or modifications to apply, monster spawners can spawn the previously unavailable Green Robe Villagers in unmodified Minecraft clients.
1.4.212w32aVillagers will like and dislike the player, depending on how they react to them.
Villagers can be infected by zombies, causing them to change their appearance and attack the player and other villagers.
1.4.4preVillager children can now be spawned easily by right clicking a villager with a villager spawner egg.
1.6.113w22aAdded sound effects for villagers. They have different sounds for taking damage, talking to villagers, successful trades, and canceled trades.
1.7.4?A bug caused Adult Villagers killed by baby zombies to turn into baby villager zombies.
1.814w02aAdded careers to villagers, splitting up the trade offers within a profession. This career is shown in the trading interface.
Reworked the trading system to be less random; it is now tier-based instead, and several offers may be generated at one time.
Due to the changes in the trading system, attempting to trade with generic villagers will crash the game.
Villagers only breed when willing. This limits the amount of villagers and prevents infinite breeding villages.
14w02cVillagers that had professions more than 4 now repeat in 0-4.
Generic villagers can now only be spawned using negative profession numbers.
14w03aVillagers struck by lightning will turn into witches.
14w04aFarmer (profession) villagers now harvest fully grown crops
Villagers can be made willing using 3 bread, 12 carrots or 12 potatoes.
14w04bVillagers now have an NBT tag that allows control over getting Experience for trading (rewardExp).
14w20aThe generic villager is completely removed. However, the texture still exists on the Minecraft files.
1.8.1pre4Villagers no longer ignore data tags or damage values.
1.915w31aFarmer villagers now harvest beetroot crops, but ignore the drops.
15w38aVillagers now pick up beetroot and beetroot seeds.
Villagers now use and share beetroot as food.
Farmer villagers can now plant beetroot seeds.
15w39aVillagers are slightly taller (1.95 blocks tall rather than 1.8, with babies 0.975 blocks tall rather than 0.9).
15w43aA priest can be found caged in an igloo basement.
1.1116w32bRe-added Generic Villagers, who are now called Nitwits, as Profession 5. However they can no longer trade, because right clicking on a Generic Villager does nothing.
Changed entity ID from Villager to villager
16w39aAdded a new career for the librarian villager called "Cartographer".
16w43aVillagers are now able to draw from their own loot tables.
1.13?Changed the Weapon Smith's career ID from 3 to 2 and the Tool Smith's from 2 to 3.
18w11aVillagers will now run away from drowned.
September 29, 2018The Village and Pillage update, which will improve villagers and villages, was announced at MINECON Earth 2018.
1.1418w47aVillagers will now hide in houses during raids.
Villagers will no longer trade while a raid is ongoing, right clicking them will instead make them emit sweat particles.
18w50aAdded new Mason profession.
Villagers now have different skins based on biome (including swamps and jungles, which do not contain villages) as well as profession.
Villagers now have five tiers and show which trade tier they've unlocked, by a badge of a varying material on their suit. The first trade tier appears as a stone badge, the next iron, then gold, emerald and finally diamond.
Villagers now run away from and get infected by giants.
19w03aVillagers no longer run away from nor get infected by giants.
19w11aAdded many new villager trades, for each villager profession.
Villager trading prices now also depend on player's popularity in the village.
Villagers now resupply their trades up to two times a day, if they get to work at a job site block.
Updated the villager trading UI.
Villagers now level up in a new way.
Villagers now have a daily schedule. They will, for example, go to work and meet up at the village bell. Each villager will try to find their own bed and job site block. Each profession has a specific block that works as a job site block for them (e.g. lectern for the librarian and cauldron for the leatherworker).
Iron golems will now spawn when enough villagers meet.
19w13aVillagers can now trade during raids again.
Villagers now sweat only during raids.
Villagers will now hide in houses when a bell is rung by the player.
Villagers will now throw gifts to players with the different Hero of the Village status effects, with the gift item depending on their profession. Baby villagers will throw poppies.
19w13bRevamped trading UI.
Available trades are now listed in a left sidebar, similar to Bedrock Edition.
When players have the required materials, clicking on one of the trades puts the items into the slots automatically.
19w14aNitwits will now shake their head and grunt if the player tries to trade with them.
Pre-Release 1Fletcher villagers no longer sell luck arrows.
100% of villager trades are now discounted when the player has the hero of the village effect.
Upcoming Java Edition
1.14.3pre1Panicking villagers now have a higher chance of spawning iron golems.
Farmers now spend more time farming when they are working.
Farmers now always give away food even if other villagers do not need it.
Pocket Edition Alpha
0.9.0build 1Added villagers. Same level of AI as Java Edition version 1.0.0 - They cannot trade, harvest crops, breed or open doors.
build 2Villagers now have sounds.
build 3Villagers are now attacked by and run away from zombies.
Villager children will now sprint.
0.9.2Villagers now have sounds on iOS and Fire OS.
0.10.0build 6Changed villager walking animation.
0.12.1build 1Villagers can now open and close doors.
Villagers will now go inside at night and detect houses.
Villagers can now socialize with each other and passive mobs.
Farmer villagers now harvest fully grown crops.
Villagers will now repopulate villages by the number of houses there are.
Villager children will now sprint.
Villagers will now like and dislike the player, depending on how they react to them.
Villagers can now be infected by zombies, causing them to change their appearance and attack the player and other villagers.
build 10Villagers will always become zombie villagers in Hard difficulty.
0.13.0build 2Villagers will now open all wooden doors (rather than just oak).
0.14.0build 1Villagers struck by lightning will now transform into witches.
Villagers are now slightly taller (1.95 blocks tall rather than 1.8, with babies 0.975 blocks tall rather than 0.9).
0.15.0build 1Villagers now run away from husks.
Pocket Edition
1.0.0alpha now spawn in igloo basements.
1.0.4alpha trading with villagers.
Baby villagers now have larger-sized heads.
Nitwit villager added for resource packs.
Villagers now can share food with other villagers.
Villagers can now be made willing by using 3 bread, 12 carrots or 12 potatoes.
Villagers now only breed when willing.
1.1.0alpha now run away from illagers and vexes.
alpha a new career for librarian villager called "Cartographer".
Bedrock Edition
1.4.0beta now run away from drowned.
1.9.0beta now run away from pillagers.
1.10.0beta Nitwit and Unemployed villager.
Added Mason profession, which can be traded with.
Villagers will now run away from the new ravager.
Added a new type of villager. Both the old (pre-Village & Pillage) and new types of villagers are able to be spawned in-game and have different spawn eggs, although they have the same name and same spawn egg texture.
Villagers now have different skins based on biome (including swamps and jungles, which do not contain villages) as well as professions, however, villagers spawned in igloo basements still use their old skin.
Villagers now have three tiers and show which trade tier they have unlocked, by a badge of a varying material on their suit.
The first trade tier appears as an iron badge, then next gold, and finally diamond.
Librarian villagers will now inspect bookshelves.
Villagers can now occupy beds to sleep.
Villagers now have a schedule. Adult and child villagers have a different schedule and fishermen, farmers, and librarians have special work schedules.
Villagers now will hold the item they want to trade.
1.11.0beta job site block has now been changed from farmland to composter.
Added economic trades, which makes villagers level up and require experience to unlock next tiers, which makes it possible to instantly change their tiers from iron to diamond.
Villager trades are no longer instantly refreshed as it now requires to resupply, which can only be activated using /resupply.
Old villagers will convert to villager_v2 .
Baby villagers are now ignored by illagers, including ravagers and vexes.
beta now heal themselves upon waking up at dawn.
beta will now hide in houses during raids.
Changed villager economy trades.
Supply and demand feature now works properly.
Villagers now make sounds when they work.
Legacy Console Edition
TU7CU11.0Patch 1Patch 1Added villagers. Same level of AI as Java Edition version 1.0.0 - They appear only as farmers and cannot trade, breed or open doors.
TU11Increased the limit for villagers in a world.
TU12Villagers can now open and close doors.
Villagers will now go inside at night and detect houses.
Villagers can now socialize with each other and passive mobs.
Villagers are now attacked by and run away from zombies.
Villagers will now repopulate villages by the number of houses there are.
Baby villagers will sprint.
TU13Added a limit to the number of villagers spawned by breeding.
Added the hearts display when villagers enter 'Love Mode'.
TU141.04Added trading with villagers.
Villagers are assigned random professions.
Villagers that are spawned from a Spawn Egg will have a random profession.
Villagers now make noises from being hurt, trading & wandering.
Baby villagers can now be spawned by using Left trigger on an adult form of that mob using a spawn egg.
TU31CU191.22Patch 3Villagers have additional professions and trading schemes.
Villagers will now harvest crops.
Villagers will only breed when willing (and can be made willing by giving them 3 bread, 12 carrots or 12 potatoes).
Villagers will turn into witches when struck by lightning.
TU54CU441.52Patch 24Patch 4Added a new career for librarian villager: "Cartographer".
New Nintendo 3DS Edition
0.1.0Added Villagers.
1.9.19Added a new career for librarian villager: "Cartographer".


Issues relating to "Villager" are maintained on the bug tracker. Report issues there.


  • The villagers were inspired by the shopkeepers in Dungeon Master 2.[5]
  • Originally, the mobs populating villages were to be pigmen.[6]
  • Name tags used on villagers will always name the villager instead of opening the trading interface.
  • After a zombie villager is cured, the villager gets Nausea for 10 seconds (indicated by the purple status effect particles).
  • When a villager is in love mode, it walks very slowly. However, when a villager runs indoors as the night falls, it runs faster than the player's sprinting speed.
  • Unlike players, villagers can claim and sleep in beds in the Nether and the End without causing them to explode. Therefore, villages can be created in both dimensions.
  • The new villager skins added in the Village and Pillage update were inspired by 2018 fashion shows, such as Gucci's.[7]
  • Villagers occasionally sleep in odd ways during the night inside their beds, sometimes hanging halfway off the side of their bed or even glitching into walls.

April fools[edit]

Information icon.svg
This feature is exclusive to Java Edition.

On April 1, 2014, Mojang announced that villagers have taken over the skin servers and content delivery networks (CDN) as an April Fools joke. This caused players's current skin to turn into villager skins, and caused users to be unable to change their skins unless modifying the launcher .json file. Different career villager skins were used, including the then-unused nitwit villager (green robe).

Many of the sounds were also changed, supposedly by the villagers. They seem to be similar to a villager talking (with words, rather than their normal sounds). The in-game music has also been altered to include villager like noises, and also features a villager version of the "Game of Thrones" theme on the title screen. The sounds originate from the sound resource pack created by Element Animation, titled The Element Animation Villager Sound Resource Pack (T.E.A.V.S.R.P.), which is based on the villagers appearing in their fan videos. The villagers were voiced by Dan Lloyd, Director of Element Animation.

The skins and the sounds were reverted to the way they were before on April 2, 2014. However, this update cannot be activated by setting the computer's date to April 1, 2014.

Bedrock and Legacy Console Editions are not affected by this April fools' Joke.