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Damage represents injury from attacks or natural causes.


Players and mobs have a supply of health points, which are reduced when they are injured. Each health point is "half a heart", shown as 1 (Half Heart.svg).

Players have 20 (Heart.svg × 10) health points, but may vary by status effects. Mobs have varying numbers of health points, but these are not generally visible to players. However, when riding mobs, a player can see their mount's health, and a wolf's health is visible in its tail angle.


Damage from attacks or natural causes will subtract from a player or mob's current health. When their health reaches zero, they die. Players can also recover health naturally by having their hunger at least 18 (Hunger.svgHunger.svgHunger.svgHunger.svgHunger.svgHunger.svgHunger.svgHunger.svgHunger.svg) and the gamerule naturalRegeneration is set to true, or through status effects. Most mobs do not recover health except through status effects, but horses and dogs can be healed by feeding them.

Armor will absorb some of the damage that would have been done to its wearer, but will take damage itself in the process.

Damage to tools and armor can be viewed in the item's tooltip by pressing the debug key combination F3+H.

Stored and displayed[edit]

Health and damage are stored as floating-point numbers in units of half-hearts. When displaying the HUD, fractional values are rounded up to the next integer.

Dealing damage[edit]

Players can deal damage by hitting most entities with targets at close (melee) range. An "unarmed" attack only does 1 (Half Heart.svg)[Java and Legacy Console editions only] damage or 2 (Heart.svg)[Bedrock Edition only][1], but weapons and certain tools do more:

  • Swords are crafted for this purpose. While swords do not extend attack range, they deal significantly more damage than any other item or tool except axes.‌[Java Edition only]
  • Axes, pickaxes and shovels also deal more damage than bare fists. Also, axes deal the most damage, but have the slowest attack speed. ‌[Java Edition only]
  • Tridents can be used melee or ranged. They are a balanced weapon, but they cannot be crafted.
  • Any other item is equivalent to fists and does the same damage. This includes hoes, and hitting something directly with a bow or held arrow.
  • While falling, melee attacks deal a critical hit (150% of the weapon's damage including potion effects, but before enchantments are applied, rounded down to the nearest hit point).

There are a few ranged weapons in the game:

  • Arrows are shot by holding and releasing use when wielding a bow, and deal a certain amount of damage, depending on the "charge" of the bow (see below).
  • Snowballs only inflict damage on blazes, while eggs don't deal damage to mobs. Both still knock mobs back as if they had been damaged.
  • Splash potions can be thrown, inflicting various effects depending on the potion.
  • Lingering potions can be thrown, creating a cloud that inflicts various effects depending on the potion.
  • Ender pearls don't deal damage to mobs or players.
  • Fishing rods cannot be used to damage mobs directly. However, fishing rods can knock entities back or reel them in.

The below values detail the damage dealt per hit using various weapons. Critical hits do extra damage. (The values listed here only apply to the Java Edition.)

Tool Attack speed Attack damage Damage/Second (DPS)
Sword 1.6 4 (Heart.svgHeart.svg) 5 (Heart.svgHeart.svgHalf Heart.svg) 6 (Heart.svgHeart.svgHeart.svg) 7 (Heart.svgHeart.svgHeart.svgHalf Heart.svg) 4 (Heart.svgHeart.svg) 6.4 8 9.6 11.2 6.4
Shovel 1 2.5 (Heart.svgHalf Heart.svg) 3.5 (Heart.svgHalf Heart.svg) 4.5 (Heart.svgHeart.svgHalf Heart.svg) 5.5 (Heart.svgHeart.svgHalf Heart.svg) 2.5 (Heart.svgHalf Heart.svg) 2.5 3.5 4.5 5.5 2.5
Pickaxe 1.2 2 (Heart.svg) 3 (Heart.svgHalf Heart.svg) 4 (Heart.svgHeart.svg) 5 (Heart.svgHeart.svgHalf Heart.svg) 2 (Heart.svg) 2.4 3.6 4.8 6 2.4
Axe 0.8 0.8 0.9 1 1 7 (Heart.svgHeart.svgHeart.svgHalf Heart.svg) 9 (Heart.svgHeart.svgHeart.svgHeart.svgHalf Heart.svg) 9 (Heart.svgHeart.svgHeart.svgHeart.svgHalf Heart.svg) 9 (Heart.svgHeart.svgHeart.svgHeart.svgHalf Heart.svg) 7 (Heart.svgHeart.svgHeart.svgHalf Heart.svg) 5.6 7.2 8.1 9 7
Hoe 1 2 3 4 1 1 (Half Heart.svg) 1 2 3[note 1] 4[note 1] 1
Other 4 1 (Half Heart.svg) 4[note 1]
  1. a b c Against a single target, DPS is effectively limited to 2 due to damage immunity.

Attack cooldown[edit]

Java Edition.png
Attack indicator (crosshair), empty and charged
Attack indicator (hotbar), empty and charged

Attacking too quickly will reduce the strength of attacks. The base damage done (as a fraction of the full possible damage) depends on the time between attacks, which is also reflected in the height of the held weapon on screen and the attack indicator bar (which is configurable in the options menu):

Item Time (seconds)
0.00 0.05 0.10 0.15 0.20 0.25 0.30 0.35 0.40 0.45 0.50 0.55 0.60 0.65 0.70 0.75 0.80 0.85 0.90 0.95 1.00 1.05 1.10 1.15 1.20 1.25
Sword 20.13% 21.15% 23.20% 26.27% 30.37% 35.49% 41.63% 48.80% 56.99% 66.21% 76.45% 87.71% 100%
Shovel 20.05% 20.45% 21.25% 22.45% 24.05% 26.05% 28.45% 31.25% 34.45% 38.05% 42.05% 46.45% 51.25% 56.45% 62.05% 68.05% 74.45% 81.25% 88.45% 96.05% 100%
Pickaxe 20.07% 20.65% 21.80% 23.53% 25.83% 28.71% 32.17% 36.20% 40.81% 45.99% 51.75% 58.09% 65.00% 72.49% 80.55% 89.19% 98.41% 100%
Axe 20.03% 20.29% 20.80% 21.57% 22.59% 23.87% 25.41% 27.20% 29.25% 31.55% 34.11% 36.93% 40.00% 43.33% 46.91% 50.75% 54.85% 59.20% 63.81% 68.67% 73.79% 79.17% 84.80% 90.69% 96.83% 100%
20.04% 20.36% 21.01% 21.98% 23.28% 24.90% 26.84% 29.11% 31.70% 34.62% 37.86% 41.42% 45.31% 49.52% 54.06% 58.92% 64.10% 69.61% 75.44% 81.60% 88.08% 94.88% 100%
20.05% 20.45% 21.25% 22.45% 24.05% 26.05% 28.45% 31.25% 34.45% 38.05% 42.05% 46.45% 51.25% 56.45% 62.05% 68.05% 74.45% 81.25% 88.45% 96.05% 100%
Hoe 20.05% 20.45% 21.25% 22.45% 24.05% 26.05% 28.45% 31.25% 34.45% 38.05% 42.05% 46.45% 51.25% 56.45% 62.05% 68.05% 74.45% 81.25% 88.45% 96.05% 100%
20.20% 21.80% 25.00% 29.80% 36.20% 44.20% 53.80% 65.00% 77.80% 92.20% 100%
20.45% 24.05% 31.25% 42.05% 56.45% 74.45% 96.05% 100%
20.80% 27.20% 40.00% 59.20% 84.80% 100%
Other 20.80% 27.20% 40.00% 59.20% 84.80% 100%

The attackSpeed attribute controls the length of the cooldown time, with the time taken being T = 1 / attackSpeed * 20 ticks. The damage multiplier is then 0.2 + ((t + 0.5) / T) ^ 2 * 0.8, restricted to the range 0.2 – 1, where t is the number of ticks since the last attack or item switch.

Damage done by enchantments (Sharpness, Smite, and Bane of Arthropods) is also reduced, but not as severely (the multiplier is not squared):

Item Time (seconds)
0.00 0.05 0.10 0.15 0.20 0.25 0.30 0.35 0.40 0.45 0.50 0.55 0.60 0.65 0.70 0.75 0.80 0.85 0.90 0.95 1.00 1.05 1.10 1.15 1.20 1.25
Sword 4.00% 12.00% 20.00% 28.00% 36.00% 44.00% 52.00% 60.00% 68.00% 76.00% 84.00% 92.00% 100%
Shovel 2.50% 7.50% 12.50% 17.50% 22.50% 27.50% 32.50% 37.50% 42.50% 47.50% 52.50% 57.50% 62.50% 67.50% 72.50% 77.50% 82.50% 87.50% 92.50% 97.50% 100%
Pickaxe 3.00% 9.00% 15.00% 21.00% 27.00% 33.00% 39.00% 45.00% 51.00% 57.00% 63.00% 69.00% 75.00% 81.00% 87.00% 93.00% 99.00% 100%
Axe 2.00% 6.00% 10.00% 14.00% 18.00% 22.00% 26.00% 30.00% 34.00% 38.00% 42.00% 46.00% 50.00% 54.00% 58.00% 62.00% 66.00% 70.00% 74.00% 78.00% 82.00% 86.00% 90.00% 94.00% 98.00% 100%
2.25% 6.75% 11.25% 15.75% 20.25% 24.75% 29.25% 33.75% 38.25% 42.75% 47.25% 51.75% 56.25% 60.75% 65.25% 69.75% 74.25% 78.75% 83.25% 87.75% 92.25% 96.75% 100%
2.50% 7.50% 12.50% 17.50% 22.50% 27.50% 32.50% 37.50% 42.50% 47.50% 52.50% 57.50% 62.50% 67.50% 72.50% 77.50% 82.50% 87.50% 92.50% 97.50% 100%
Hoe 2.50% 7.50% 12.50% 17.50% 22.50% 27.50% 32.50% 37.50% 42.50% 47.50% 52.50% 57.50% 62.50% 67.50% 72.50% 77.50% 82.50% 87.50% 92.50% 97.50% 100%
5.00% 15.00% 25.00% 35.00% 45.00% 55.00% 65.00% 75.00% 85.00% 95.00% 100%
7.50% 22.50% 37.50% 52.50% 67.50% 82.50% 97.50% 100%
10.00% 30.00% 50.00% 70.00% 90.00% 100%
Other 10.00% 30.00% 50.00% 70.00% 90.00% 100%

Critical hits[edit]

A critical hit performed on a shorn sheep.

Critical hits are attacks that deal extra damage compared to regular attacks. Critical melee strikes, regardless of the weapon used, cause small star particles to fly out of the target who was critically hit. "Critical arrows", which occur when arrows are fired from a fully charged bow, leave a trail of the same small star particles as they fly through the air. Critical hits affect all damageable entities including players, mobs, paintings, boats and minecarts.

In melee, a critical hit occurs when a player attacks a mob while falling, including while coming down from a jump, but not while jumping up. The attack deals 150% of the attack's base damage (before enchantments or armor are applied).

The requirements for a melee critical hit are:

  • A player must be falling.
  • A player must not be on the ground.
  • A player must not be on a ladder/vine.
  • A player must not be in water.
  • A player must not be affected by blindness.
  • A player must not be riding an entity.
  • A player must not be faster than walking (like flying or sprinting.‌[Java Edition only])
  • A base attack must not be reduced to 84.8% damage or lower due to cooldown.‌[Java Edition only]


After sustaining damage from any source, a mob/player will turn red in color for half a second. During this period, most other incoming damage will not be counted against the player/mob's total health. This immunity only seems to affect combat damage; for example, the player cannot avoid fall damage by taking combat damage just before landing.

For instance, if the player attacks a mob with a sword by repeatedly hitting the attack button, the sword's rate of fire will exceed the mob's allowable rate of incoming damage, and several of the attacks will not damage the mob even if they land. It is recommended to wait for a mob to be hittable again before swinging your sword, making your hits more precise. The tool used won't lose durability after unsuccessful attacks.

If an entity is in the immunity period and then receives higher damage, the higher damage "overrides" the lower damage. For example, if a mob is attacked with a weapon dealing 7 (Heart.svgHeart.svgHeart.svgHalf Heart.svg) damage and then attacked with a weapon dealing 13 (Heart.svg × 6.5) damage during the immunity period, the mob will take 13 (Heart.svg × 6.5) damage total.

Inflicted by mobs[edit]

The damage mobs deal to players is affected by the difficulty of the game. The below values represent the amount of damage taken per hit.

  • This only applies to mobs attacking the player. Mobs attacking other mobs (wolves, iron golems, etc.) always deal the 'Normal' damage listed, regardless of difficulty.
  • Values for the creeper and ghast assume the player is directly adjacent to the explosion.
  • The damage of slimes and magma cubes depends on their size. Tiny-sized slimes, while hostile, are unable to do damage directly.
  • In contrast, the damage for an iron golem just has a large random factor.
  • Mobs deal no damage on peaceful, apart from the wolf[Bedrock Edition only] and the llama.
Mob Difficulty Status effect(s)
Easy Normal Hard
Blaze (melee) 4 (Heart.svgHeart.svg) 6 (Heart.svgHeart.svgHeart.svg) 9 (Heart.svgHeart.svgHeart.svgHeart.svgHalf Heart.svg) No
Blaze fireball 5 (Heart.svgHeart.svgHalf Heart.svg) No
Cave Spider 2 (Heart.svg) 2 (Poisoned Heart.svg) 3 (Poisoned Heart.svgPoisoned Half Heart.svg) Poison for 7 seconds on normal difficulty and for 15 seconds on hard difficulty
Creeper explosion (normal) 25 (Heart.svg × 12.5) 49 (Heart.svg × 24.5) 73 (Heart.svg × 36.5) When exploding: No

If having a potion effect when exploding, it leaves an effect cloud with the effect, like a lingering potion.

Creeper explosion (charged) 49 (Heart.svg × 24.5) 97 (Heart.svg × 48.5) 145 (Heart.svg × 72.5)
Dolphin 2 (Heart.svg) 3 (Heart.svgHalf Heart.svg) 4 (Heart.svgHeart.svg) No
Drowned 2 (Heart.svg) 3 (Heart.svgHalf Heart.svg) 4 (Heart.svgHeart.svg) No
Drowned trident 8 (Heart.svgHeart.svgHeart.svgHeart.svg) No
Elder Guardian 5 (Heart.svgHeart.svgHalf Heart.svg) 8 (Heart.svgHeart.svgHeart.svgHeart.svg) 12 (Heart.svg × 6) Inflicts Mining Fatigue III for 5 minutes on nearby players
Ender Dragon 6 (Heart.svgHeart.svgHeart.svg) 10 (Heart.svgHeart.svgHeart.svgHeart.svgHeart.svg) 15 (Heart.svg × 7.5) No
Enderman 4 (Heart.svgHeart.svg) 7 (Heart.svgHeart.svgHeart.svgHalf Heart.svg) 10 (Heart.svgHeart.svgHeart.svgHeart.svgHeart.svg) No
Endermite 2 (Heart.svg) No
Evoker fangs 6 (Heart.svgHeart.svgHeart.svg) No
Ghast fireball (impact) 6 (Heart.svgHeart.svgHeart.svg) No
Ghast fireball (explosion) 9 (Heart.svgHeart.svgHeart.svgHeart.svgHalf Heart.svg) 17 (Heart.svg × 8.5) 25 (Heart.svg × 12.5) No
Giant (unused) 26 (Heart.svg × 13) 50 (Heart.svg × 25) 75 (Heart.svg × 37.5) No
Guardian 4 (Heart.svgHeart.svg) 6 (Heart.svgHeart.svgHeart.svg) 9 (Heart.svgHeart.svgHeart.svgHeart.svgHalf Heart.svg) No
Illusioner arrow 1 (Half Heart.svg)4 (Heart.svgHeart.svg) 1 (Half Heart.svg)4 (Heart.svgHeart.svg) 1 (Half Heart.svg)5 (Heart.svgHeart.svgHalf Heart.svg) Throws Blindness spells on the player, if regional difficulty is 3 or greater
Iron Golem 4 (Heart.svgHeart.svg)11 (Heart.svg × 5.5) 7 (Heart.svgHeart.svgHeart.svgHalf Heart.svg)21 (Heart.svg × 10.5) 10 (Heart.svgHeart.svgHeart.svgHeart.svgHeart.svg)31 (Heart.svg × 15.5) No
The Killer Bunny 5 (Heart.svgHeart.svgHalf Heart.svg) 8 (Heart.svgHeart.svgHeart.svgHeart.svg) 12 (Heart.svg × 6) No
Llama spit 1 (Half Heart.svg) No
Magma Cube (big) 4 (Heart.svgHeart.svg) 6 (Heart.svgHeart.svgHeart.svg) 9 (Heart.svgHeart.svgHeart.svgHeart.svgHalf Heart.svg) No
Magma Cube (medium) 3 (Heart.svgHalf Heart.svg) 4 (Heart.svgHeart.svg) 6 (Heart.svgHeart.svgHeart.svg) No
Magma Cube (small) 2 (Heart.svg) 3 (Heart.svgHalf Heart.svg) 4 (Heart.svgHeart.svg) No
Phantom 4 (Heart.svgHeart.svg) 6 (Heart.svgHeart.svgHeart.svg) 9 (Heart.svgHeart.svgHeart.svgHeart.svgHalf Heart.svg) No
Polar Bear 4 (Heart.svgHeart.svg) 6 (Heart.svgHeart.svgHeart.svg) 9 (Heart.svgHeart.svgHeart.svgHeart.svgHalf Heart.svg) No
Pufferfish (melee) 2 (Heart.svg) 3 (Heart.svgHalf Heart.svg) 4 (Heart.svgHeart.svg) No
Pufferfish (poison) 5 (Poisoned Heart.svgPoisoned Heart.svgPoisoned Half Heart.svg) Gives the player Poison for 7 seconds
Shulker bullet 4 (Heart.svgHeart.svg) Levitation for 10 seconds
Silverfish 1 (Half Heart.svg) No
Skeleton arrow 1 (Half Heart.svg)4 (Heart.svgHeart.svg) 1 (Half Heart.svg)4 (Heart.svgHeart.svg) 1 (Half Heart.svg)5 (Heart.svgHeart.svgHalf Heart.svg) Normal skeleton: No

Stray: Slowness for 30 seconds when their tipped arrow hits any mob (including another stray)

Slime (big) 3 (Heart.svgHalf Heart.svg) 4 (Heart.svgHeart.svg) 6 (Heart.svgHeart.svgHeart.svg) No
Slime (medium) 2 (Heart.svg) 2 (Heart.svg) 3 (Heart.svgHalf Heart.svg) No
Slime (small) 0 (Empty Heart.svg) No
Spider 2 (Heart.svg) 3 (Heart.svgHalf Heart.svg) No, but can spawn with effects
Vex 5 (Heart.svgHeart.svgHalf Heart.svg) 9 (Heart.svgHeart.svgHeart.svgHeart.svgHalf Heart.svg) 13 (Heart.svg × 6.5) No
Vindicator 7 (Heart.svgHeart.svgHeart.svgHalf Heart.svg) 13 (Heart.svg × 6.5) 19 (Heart.svg × 9.5) No
Witch Deals damage by throwing potions Throws splash potions of Poison, Instant Damage, Slowness and Weakness
Wither Skeleton 5 (Withered Heart.svgWithered Heart.svgWithered Half Heart.svg) 8 (Withered Heart.svgWithered Heart.svgWithered Heart.svgWithered Heart.svg) 12 (Withered Heart.svg × 6) Wither for 10 seconds
Wither Skull 5 (Heart.svgHeart.svgHalf Heart.svg) 8 (Withered Heart.svgWithered Heart.svgWithered Heart.svgWithered Heart.svg) 12 (Withered Heart.svg × 6) Wither II for 40 seconds on Normal and Hard difficulties
Wither (dash attack)
[Legacy Console and Bedrock editions only]
15 (Heart.svg × 7.5) No
Wolf (tamed) 3 (Heart.svgHalf Heart.svg) 4 (Heart.svgHeart.svg) 6 (Heart.svgHeart.svgHeart.svg) No
Wolf (hostile) 2 (Heart.svg) 3 (Heart.svgHalf Heart.svg) No
Zombie 2 (Heart.svg) 3 (Heart.svgHalf Heart.svg) 4 (Heart.svgHeart.svg) Normal zombie and zombie villager variant: No, but transfers fire

Husks: Hunger when attacking any mob for 7 × RD seconds

Zombie Pigman 5 (Heart.svgHeart.svgHalf Heart.svg) 8 (Heart.svgHeart.svgHeart.svgHeart.svg) 12 (Heart.svg × 6) No


When receiving damage from players, mobs, or most projectiles, players and mobs will also be knocked back. The resulting disorientation and loss of control should not be underestimated, as it is possible to be knocked back over a cliff or into lava, both of which are potentially fatal.

A sprinting attack causes extra knockback. A thrown egg or snowball also causes knockback, despite not damaging most mobs. Entities riding another entity never receive any knockback when attacked.

Natural damage[edit]

Besides mob attacks, players can take damage from several other sources.

Lightning damage[edit]

Lightning striking on or near the player will do 5 (Heart.svgHeart.svgHalf Heart.svg) damage, which can be reduced with armor. Lightning strikes on the player are very rare, and only occur during thunderstorms. Players and mobs that get hit by lightning will be set on fire, but will be quickly put out from the rain during a thunderstorm.

Fall damage[edit]

Most mobs receive damage when falling from excessive heights. Armor itself does not reduce fall damage, however the enchantments and status effect Feather Falling and Protection, Slow Falling do. Below is a table which shows which mobs who are immune to fall damage or not.

Mob Immune to fall damage
Hostile and neutral mobs

Chicken Jockey
Ender Dragon
Snow Golem
Iron Golem
Magma Cube


Zombie Pigman

Shulker Does not fall
Player No unless /gamerule falldamage is set to false.‌[Bedrock Edition only]
Passive mobs (animals)



Polar Bear

Horse Treat as all falls is half of the actual distance

Fall damage is calculated based on distance fallen rather than on velocity when hitting the ground. The distance is accumulated based on change in position each tick and rising does not reduce the accumulator, thus an entity bouncing in mid-air on the end of a lead will accumulate fatal amounts of fall distance despite never being more than a few blocks above the ground.

Fall damage is 1 (Half Heart.svg) for each block of fall distance after the third. Thus, falling 4 blocks causes 1 (Half Heart.svg) damage, 2 (Heart.svg) damage for 5 blocks, and so forth. Assuming full health (but no Feather Falling or relevant status effects), a 23 block fall should be fatal (23 - 3 = 20 (Heart.svg × 10) of damage), but due to the way fall distance is calculated, a 23.5 block fall is required instead.[note 1]

Falling from smaller damaging heights (4-7 blocks) will play a thud; larger heights (8+) give a click/cracking sound.

In some cases, it is possible to avoid falling or otherwise survive a fall.

  • Sneaking will prevent the player from falling off a drop of one block or greater.
  • Entering or being in water (when not in a boat) resets fall distance.
    • This typically includes falling into water of any depth.
  • Being in the area of effect of cobwebs resets fall distance.
  • Being in lava reduces fall distance by half each tick.
  • Flying using elytra such that the vertical movement is upwards, level, or less than 0.5 blocks per tick downwards resets fall distance to 1 block.
  • Moving into a ladder or vine's area of effect resets the fall damage. This also applies to trapdoors acting as a ladder.
    • Falling onto the top of a ladder will not reset fall distance and counts as hitting the ground.
    • Horses are unaffected by ladders and vines, and so their fall distance is not reset.
    • Spiders climbing a block count the block as a "ladder" for this purpose.
  • An entity riding another entity does not accumulate fall distance. However, when the ridden entity takes fall damage it damages all riders for the same fall distance.
  • A minecart's fall distance is reset when landing on rails.
  • Boats do not accumulate fall distance while in water deeper than 1 block.
  • Teleporting due to a thrown ender pearl resets fall distance, however the teleportation itself causes 5 (Heart.svgHeart.svgHalf Heart.svg) fall damage to players.
  • Wearing armor that is enchanted with Feather Falling or Protection reduces fall damage based on the level of the enchantment.
  • Having the Jump Boost status effect reduces the effective fall distance by 1 block per level, e.g. falling 5 blocks with Jump Boost II counts as having fallen only 3.
  • Slime blocks negate all fall damage, but will send the entity bouncing into the air.
    • This does not apply to players sneaking.
  • Hay bales decrease fall damage to 20% of normal.
  • Beds decrease fall damage to 50% of normal, and causes the entity to bounce into the air.
  1. The last tick of fall distance isn't added in when calculating fall damage. For certain heights, including 23-block falls, this discrepancy is enough to avoid an entire 1 (Half Heart.svg) of damage.


The oxygen bar.

When a player runs out of air underwater, they will start drowning and will take approximately 2 (Heart.svg) per second.[note 1]

Mobs can drown as well, though they usually do not, as any mob that can drown in water will attempt to swim upward. A squid or any kind of fish will die in air instead of in water, while iron golems, guardians, turtles and undead mobs will not drown in any situation. Withers can drown, but break blocks around them (including water) upon taking damage. Normally, mobs can remain underwater for 15 seconds before their air supply fully depletes. They can remain underwater for 16 seconds before actually beginning to take damage. The Water Breathing status effect stops the air meter from depleting, and Respiration equipment adds, on average, an additional 16 seconds per level. Neither effect affects squids and fish. A zombie will not take damage, but instead will begin the process of converting to a drowned mob‌[Java and Bedrock editions only] when continuously in water for 30 seconds, and these mobs do not drown.

When the player is no longer submerged in water, their oxygen bar will gradually regenerate, taking a few seconds to become full.

Using an empty bucket on a water block creates a temporary air block, which can be used for the same effect.

In Pocket Edition Alpha 0.8.0, the player actually has 11 air bubbles but once submerged, the 11th bubble instantly disappears.

  1. Damage is taken when air supply value reaches -20. Usually air supply value decreases each tick, and resets to 0, after damaging player. Respiration gives a chance for air supply to not decrease itself per tick. Chance is x/(x + 1), where x is the level of enchantment.


A falling anvil deals 2 (Heart.svg) per block fallen after the first (e.g., an anvil that falls 4 blocks will deal 6 (Heart.svgHeart.svgHeart.svg) damage). The damage is capped at 40 (Heart.svg × 20), no matter how far the anvil falls. Wearing a helmet will reduce the damage by 25%, but reduces many points of durability on the helmet.

Thorns Enchantment[edit]

When a player or mob deals melee or projectile damage to a player or mob that is wearing Thorns-enchanted armor, the attacker will also be damaged. The amount varies with the enchantment level. (Level * 15% chance of inflicting 1 (Half Heart.svg)4 (Heart.svgHeart.svg) damage, or Level - 10 damage if level is over 10)


Suffocation occurs when a player or a mob is unable to breathe due to its head being stuck inside a solid block, causing the player or mob to receive 1 (Half Heart.svg) damage every half-second. When inside a block, the player can easily step out of it as the blocks do not prevent their movement.

The player's screen will be a darkened form of the block the player is suffocating in. When the player is in third person, the view will automatically switch to first person.‌[Java and Legacy Console editions only]

The usual ways a mob can get suffocated are:

  • Sand, gravel or concrete powder falling into the space the entity occupies.
  • Riding a pig, boat, or minecart, or throwing an ender pearl into a one-block-high space.
  • Riding a horse into a two-block-high space.
  • Standing where a tree just grew from a sapling, or where a huge mushroom just grew from a mushroom.
  • Standing where an end gateway appeared after killing the dragon.
  • Having a solid block pushed into the mob's head with a piston.
  • Sleeping in a bed surrounded by blocks and/or having a solid block above it.
  • Being teleported or filled into a block via commands.
  • When playing on a distant server, sometimes broken blocks can reappear due to lag, and if the player moves where the block respawned, it can provoke suffocation (for example, chopping down a tree by moving right below the trunk).
  • When water and lava meet, and create a cobblestone, stone, or obsidian block on the entity's head.
  • Standing where a world border getting into more than 5 blocks. (can be changed with /worldborder damage buffer)
  • Summoning an entity inside a block through spawn eggs, commands, or with a golem/wither structure laying down.

The maxEntityCramming gamerule defines the maximum number, above which a player or mob will take 3 (Heart.svgHalf Heart.svg) suffocation damage every half-second, as long as that player or mob is pushing greater than that number of other entities. Pushable entities include players, mobs, boats and minecarts.

As of Pocket Edition Alpha 0.16.0, the player can "drown" in lava and while suffocating in a block (the oxygen bar appears); is affected by water breathing potion, however lava or suffocation will usually kill the player before oxygen runs out.[verify]


When the hunger bar becomes empty (Empty Hunger.svgEmpty Hunger.svgEmpty Hunger.svgEmpty Hunger.svgEmpty Hunger.svgEmpty Hunger.svgEmpty Hunger.svgEmpty Hunger.svgEmpty Hunger.svgEmpty Hunger.svg), the player will take 1 (Half Heart.svg) damage every four seconds. The player stops taking starvation damage when the player eats food or the health bar drops to 10 (Heart.svgHeart.svgHeart.svgHeart.svgHeart.svg) on Easy difficulty or 1 (Half Heart.svg) on Normal difficulty. In Hard difficulty and on Hardcore mode, the damage will not stop until the player starves to death or eats something.


Players and mobs take 1 (Half Heart.svg) damage every half-second that they are touching a cactus.

Magma Block[edit]

Mobs without fire immunity and players take 1 (Half Heart.svg) damage every half-second if they are walking on magma blocks. This can be avoided by having the Fire Resistance effect, sneaking, or wearing a Frost Walker-enchanted boots.


Mobs and players without fire immunity take 1 (Half Heart.svg) damage every half-second if they are standing on fire, and take 1 (Half Heart.svg) damage every second if they are on fire but not standing on fire unless extinguished by water. This can be avoided by having the Fire Resistance effect.


Lava is a dangerous natural occurrence. Players and mobs will take damage from contact with lava at a rate of 4 (Heart.svgHeart.svg) every half-second, and stay on fire even if they exit it, causing 1 (Half Heart.svg) point per hit for 15 hits or more (15 (Heart.svg × 7.5) total damage) unless extinguished by water or nullified by Fire Resistance.

Status effects[edit]


Cave spiders will poison players when they bite (except on easy difficulty). Eating a spider eye, poisonous potato, or pufferfish; or drinking/being hit by a potion of Poison will give the same result. While poisoned, the hearts in the health meter turn from Heart.svg × 10 (Hardcore Heart.svg × 10 on Hardcore) to an olive green (Poisoned Heart.svg × 10)(Poisoned Hardcore Heart.svg × 10 on Hardcore) and the player takes 1 (Poisoned Half Heart.svg) every 25 ticks (1.25 seconds) on level I. See Poison for a table for higher levels. The Poison itself cannot kill the player, but it can reduce them to half a heart (Poisoned Half Heart.svgEmpty Heart.svgEmpty Heart.svgEmpty Heart.svgEmpty Heart.svgEmpty Heart.svgEmpty Heart.svgEmpty Heart.svgEmpty Heart.svgEmpty Heart.svg), thus leaving them very vulnerable to damage from other sources.


Withers and wither skeletons will inflict the Wither effect with their attacks. (The wither boss's skulls do not inflict the effect on easy difficulty.) This will darken the health bar to Withered Heart.svg × 10 on Survival and Withered Hardcore Heart.svg × 10 on Hardcore, while inflicting damage over time. The effect deals 1 (Withered Half Heart.svg) every 2 seconds (40 ticks) for the wither skeleton's attack (level I), and every second for the Wither's skulls. Unlike Poison, withering can kill on any difficulty level, and the darkened health bar makes it harder to keep track of the damage.

The Void[edit]

If one were to break through the bedrock barrier found at the bottom of worlds, the void can be seen. Players in the void below the Y-axis of -64 will take damage at a rate of about 4 (Heart.svgHeart.svg) per half-second. The player will usually die from falling in the void, even in creative mode‌[Java Edition only], but the player may be saved by throwing an ender pearl before they fall below the Y-axis of -64. In Bedrock Edition, the player will take damage at any negative Y-axis.

Falling into the void in the End is more likely, and is the only way to access the void in survival mode, and in Legacy Console Edition (there the bottom bedrock layer is unbreakable, even in creative) so players must be cautious when entering the End.

By using /effect to give yourself Regeneration 5+ or Instant Health, you can fall infinitely into the void without dying until the game crashes.


Firework rocket explosion[edit]

Firework rocket explosions can deal damage to entities.

If a rocket has been crafted with a firework star, its explosion will deal damage within a radius of about 412 blocks. At the edge of the radius, it will deal only 1 (Half Heart.svg) damage, but this increases as you get closer until the explosion maxes out at its strongest: 5 (Heart.svgHeart.svgHalf Heart.svg) damage at distances of 2 blocks or less.

If a rocket crafted with a firework star is used to provide a speed boost while gliding with elytra, it will explode as it is used, dealing 7 (Heart.svgHeart.svgHeart.svgHalf Heart.svg) damage to the player.


Icon Achievement In-game description Actual requirements (if different) Availability Xbox points earned Trophy type (PS)
Xbox PS Bedrock Nintendo
Monster HunterAttack and destroy a monsterKill a hostile mob or one of the following neutral mobs: enderman, zombie pigman, spider, cave spider.Xbox OneYesYesYes15GBronze
Xbox 360Alt20G
Sniper DuelKill a skeleton with an arrow from more than 50 metersUse a launched arrow to kill a skeleton, wither skeleton, or a stray from 50 or more blocks away, horizontally.YesYesYesYes30GSilver
OverkillDeal nine hearts of damage in a single hitDamage can be dealt to any mob, even those that do not have nine hearts of health overall.YesYesYesYes30GBronze
The Beginning.Kill the WitherBe within a 100.9×100.9×203.5 cuboid centered on the Wither when it drops the nether star.YesYesYesYes40GSilver
ArcherKill a creeper with arrows.YesYesYesWii U, Switch10GBronze
'Tis but a scratchTake 100 damage in a round of a public Battle mini game.YesYesNoWii U, Switch40GSilver
CupidKill 2 players in a round of a public Battle mini game using a bow and arrow.YesYesNoWii U, Switch20GBronze
Hunger PainKill a player while you are starving in a Battle mini game.YesYesNoWii U, Switch20GBronze


Icon Advancement In-game description Parent Actual requirements (if different) Internal ID
Advancement-fancy-raw.pngReturn to SenderDestroy a Ghast with a fireballNetherKill a ghast using a ghast fireball.minecraft:nether/return_to_sender
Advancement-fancy-raw.pngUneasy AllianceRescue a Ghast from the Nether, bring it safely home to the Overworld... and then kill itReturn to SenderKill a Ghast in the Overworld.minecraft:nether/uneasy_alliance
Advancement-plain-raw.pngSpooky Scary SkeletonObtain a Wither Skeleton's skullA Terrible FortressHave a wither skeleton skull in your inventory.minecraft:nether/get_wither_skull
Advancement-plain-raw.pngWithering HeightsSummon the WitherSpooky Scary SkeletonBe within a 100.9×100.9×103.5 cuboid centered on the Wither when it is spawned.minecraft:nether/summon_wither
Advancement-plain-raw.pngMonster HunterKill any hostile monsterAdventureKill one of these 25 mobs. Other mobs are ignored for this advancement.minecraft:adventure/kill_a_mob
Advancement-plain-raw.pngTake AimShoot something with a bow and arrowMonster Hunterminecraft:adventure/shoot_arrow
Advancement-fancy-raw.pngSniper DuelKill a Skeleton from more than 50 meters awayTake AimKill a skeleton with a projectile while being at least 50 blocks away horizontally.minecraft:adventure/sniper_duel



Java Edition Classic
August 18, 2009First showcased fall damage.
August 25, 2009It has been shown that you can now only hold your breath underwater for 15 seconds. At this time, the oxygen bar had a different look than it does currently, displaying as "Oxygen: 100%."
Lava now has been shown to cause damage.
August 27, 2009Fall damage is mentioned to now be much harsher.
0.24_SURVIVAL_TESTAdded damage.
Mobs and the player now jump back when damage is taken.
Added arrows which cause damage when they hit a player.
0.25 SURVIVAL TESTArrows deal more damage.
Java Edition Indev
?Before suffocation was implemented, players that were covered by blocks could see through dirt and stone. Suffocation was added after Notch discovered that players were abusing this exploit to find underground caves and hollowed carvings. The patch added suffocation damage and made the player unable to see anything when experiencing it. However, variations of this glitch are still possible to perform even in the current version of the game.
In Survival mode, eating a red mushroom would deal the player 3 (Heart.svgHalf Heart.svg).
Java Edition Infdev
?The oxygen bar changed its look from "Oxygen: 100%" to "Bubbles.gif".
Java Edition Alpha
v1.0.4Players no longer suffocate when riding in a minecart.
Java Edition Beta
1.5Unarmed damage was increased from 1 (Half Heart.svg) to 2 (Heart.svg).
July 26, 2011Notch first teased how knockback would work.
1.8?Unarmed damage was decreased from 2 (Heart.svg) to 1 (Half Heart.svg).
The Adventure Update extended the combat system with critical hits, sprinting (for knockback) and blocking.
Hunger system added: Health is no longer restored directly by eating. Instead, it recovers slowly when well-fed, but is lost if starving.
Poison added, which deals damage, until the player or mob's health is 1 (Poisoned Half Heart.svg).
Java Edition
1.0.0Beta 1.9 PrereleaseArmor no longer prevents certain types of damage.
Beta 1.9 Prerelease 3Sword damage was decreased (a diamond sword went from 5 hearts to 3.5 hearts damage).
Beta 1.9 Prerelease 4Enchantments added, some of which increase damage you deal or decrease damage dealt to you.
RC1The sound of the player taking damage was changed from a masculine oof to painful crunching sound. These were changed to remove the restriction that all avatars have a male voice, regardless of the gender of the character depicted in the skin.
1.3.112w25aRemoved the downwards knockback while drowning.
12w30aExplosions damage the player different amounts in different difficulties, and the player doesn't take any damage from explosions on Peaceful.
1.3.2?Mobs no longer shove the player when moving into them.
1.4.212w32aMobs can hold weapons, making them deal more damage. Also, the crunching noise from 1.0.0 was changed, sounding more like a slap rather than a bone-breaking punch. The fall damage noise was also changed from a crunch to a dull, thumping noise.
12w34aWither effect added, which deals damage. Unlike Poison, withering can kill players or other mobs.
1.6.2?Instead of replacing the barehanded damage (1 (Half Heart.svg)), swords, shovels, pickaxes and axes now add their damage onto the barehanded damage, which results in all tools doing 1 (Half Heart.svg) more damage than before.
1.814w32aThe health bar has a new animation for damage that shows how many hearts are lost. (Not new, merely a revived feature that was lost after 1.2.5).
1.915w34aAdded attack cooldown.
15w34cTool damages and cooldowns adjusted.
Item Damage
Swords 5 (Heart.svgHeart.svgHalf Heart.svg) 6 (Heart.svgHeart.svgHeart.svg) 7 (Heart.svgHeart.svgHeart.svgHalf Heart.svg) 8 (Heart.svgHeart.svgHeart.svgHeart.svg)
Axes [note 1] 4 (Heart.svgHeart.svg) 5 (Heart.svgHeart.svgHalf Heart.svg) 6 (Heart.svgHeart.svgHeart.svg) 7 (Heart.svgHeart.svgHeart.svgHalf Heart.svg)
Pickaxes [note 1] 3 (Heart.svgHalf Heart.svg) 4 (Heart.svgHeart.svg) 5 (Heart.svgHeart.svgHalf Heart.svg) 6 (Heart.svgHeart.svgHeart.svg)
Shovels [note 1] 2 (Heart.svg) 3 (Heart.svgHalf Heart.svg) 4 (Heart.svgHeart.svg) 5 (Heart.svgHeart.svgHalf Heart.svg)
  1. a b c dealing damage with an axe, pick, or shovel decreases its durability by 2.
15w35aTool damages and cooldowns adjusted again.
15w47bAdded sounds for critical hits, fully-charged and not-fully-charged attacks, blocked attacks, sweep attacks and dealing knockback.
16w02aCooldown damage reduction formula adjusted, reduction is now linear 50%–100% rather than quadratic 0%–100%.
16w05aCooldown damage reduction formula adjusted again, reduction is now quadratic 20%–100%.
1.1318w07aAdded a new weapon: tridents. These can be either thrown or used in melee combat, and will deal 9 (Heart.svgHeart.svgHeart.svgHeart.svgHalf Heart.svg) damage.
1.1418w43aAdded a new weapon: Crossbow.
Pocket Edition Alpha
0.2.0Added Survival mode and mobs, making damage possible.
0.11.0build 1Poison added, which deals damage, until the player or mob's health is 1 (Poisoned Half Heart.svg).
0.12.1build 1Added critical hits.
Punch damage is now added to damage from swords, axes, pickaxes, and shovels.
Hunger system added: Health is no longer restored directly by eating. Instead, it recovers slowly when well-fed, but is lost if starving.
Wither effect added, which deals damage. Unlike Poison, withering can kill players or other mobs.
Mobs can hold weapons, making them deal more damage.
Enchantments added, some of which increase damage you deal or decrease damage dealt to you.
?The sound of the player taking damage was changed from a masculine oof to painful crunching sound. These were changed to remove the restriction that all avatars have a male voice, regardless of the gender of the character depicted in the skin.
build 12Critical hits now have more particles.
Bedrock Edition
1.4.0beta a new weapon: tridents. These can be either thrown or used in melee combat, and will deal 9 (Heart.svgHeart.svgHeart.svgHeart.svgHalf Heart.svg) damage.


  • Critical hits can be done while reflecting a ghast fireball, but won't change the damage or speed of it.
  • In Creative mode, attacking a mob while flying after having descended will score a critical hit.
  • In the Legacy Console Edition, the player can only take void damage in the End.
  • Quitting the game will reset the fall damage that will be dealt to the player.
  • Maximum damage dealable by player in survival is 35 (Heart.svg × 17.5): 9 (Heart.svgHeart.svgHeart.svgHeart.svgHalf Heart.svg) from a stone, iron, or diamond axe + 6 (Heart.svgHeart.svgHeart.svg) from Strength II, all × 1.5 (Half Heart.svg) with critical, + 12.5 (Heart.svg × 6.25) damage from Smite V on an undead target, or Bane of Arthropods V on an arthropod. The maximum on a non-undead non-arthropod target is only 25.5 (Heart.svg × 12.75): 9 (Heart.svgHeart.svgHeart.svgHeart.svgHalf Heart.svg) from a stone, iron, or diamond axe + 6 (Heart.svgHeart.svgHeart.svg) from Strength II, all × 1.5 (Half Heart.svg) with critical, + 3 (Heart.svgHalf Heart.svg) damage from Sharpness V. A full set of Protection IV diamond armor would reduce the 25.5 (Heart.svg × 12.75) damage to 4.1769 (Heart.svgHeart.svgHalf Heart.svg).
  • With all possible reductions to fall damage currently available in Survival (landing on a hay bale, Feather Falling IV boots, Protection IV on other armor pieces, and Resistance II from a beacon) the maximum height the player can fall while surviving without Absorption is a little over 800 blocks.

With the strongest bow enchantment, and arrow of harming, it is possible to kill players and mobs in one hit.