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The furnace interface.

Smelting is a method of producing refined goods in Minecraft, also known as melting, baking, cooking, burning, drying, or producing. It has the same idea as crafting; one must put in acceptable ingredients, and a corresponding output will be given. However, smelting utilizes furnace blocks, which have a unique interface: one "input" field for the object that will be heated, one field for the fuel, and one "output" field for the final smelted product. For example, two saplings (fuel) could be used to smelt one wood (input) into one charcoal (output).

To smelt something, an input material and a fuel must be loaded into the furnace. It will begin to smelt on its own and will continue to work if the menu is closed and the player leaves. When the furnace begins to smelt, it will consume one piece of fuel and the fire gauge will fill up. As the input smelts, the fire gauge will slowly recede until it is gone, and then the next piece of fuel will be used. If there is no more fuel left, the furnace will be interrupted and the item will be uncooked. If fuel is burning and runs out of input, the fire gauge will continue to burn down, wasting the burn time left. Once the fire gauge is out, no more fuel will be used.

As things smelt, an arrow icon represents the cooking process. Each smelting operation takes 10 seconds and the progress will be shown on the arrow. If the furnace runs out of fuel before the arrow is filled up, then the input will not be smelted and the process will rewind at 2x speed. When the arrow fills up completely, one input item will be put into the output field as an output item.

If the player leaves a furnace while it is smelting and travels so far that the chunks unload, the smelting process will halt until the player returns. Smelting will also pause if one leaves the dimension the furnace is located in. If the player sleeps in a bed while a furnace is smelting, the furnace's progress will be the same as if the bed had not been used and no additional time had passed. This is because when a player sleeps in a bed, no time actually passes. Instead, the game sets the time of day to morning.

Recipes[edit | edit source]

Food[edit | edit source]

Product Ingredient Exp Description

Cooked Porkchop

Raw Porkchop
0.35 Fills 8 (Hunger.svgHunger.svgHunger.svgHunger.svg), while raw only fills 3 (Half Hunger.svgHunger.svg).


Raw Beef
0.35 Fills 8 (Hunger.svgHunger.svgHunger.svgHunger.svg), while raw only fills 3 (Half Hunger.svgHunger.svg).

Cooked Chicken

Raw Chicken
0.35 Fills 6 (Hunger.svgHunger.svgHunger.svg), while raw only fills 2 (Hunger.svg) and raw has a 30% chance for Hunger.

Cooked Fish

Raw Fish
0.35 Fills 5 (Half Hunger.svgHunger.svgHunger.svg), while raw only fills 2 (Hunger.svg).

Cooked Salmon

Raw Salmon
0.35 Fills 6 (Hunger.svgHunger.svgHunger.svg), while raw only fills 2 (Hunger.svg).

Baked Potato

0.35 Fills 5 (Half Hunger.svgHunger.svgHunger.svg), while raw only fills 1 (Half Hunger.svg).

Cooked Mutton

Raw Mutton
0.35 Fills 6 (Hunger.svgHunger.svgHunger.svg), while raw only fills 2 (Hunger.svg).

Cooked Rabbit

Raw Rabbit
0.35 Fills 5 (Half Hunger.svgHunger.svgHunger.svg), while raw only fills 3 (Half Hunger.svgHunger.svg).

Processing ores and materials[edit | edit source]

Product Ingredient Exp Description

Iron Ingot

Iron Ore
0.7 Used to craft various items. See Iron Ingot

Gold Ingot

Gold Ore
1.0 Used to craft various items. See Gold Ingot


0.1 Used to make transparent structures. Also used to craft Glass Panes, Glass Bottles, Stained Glass, Daylight Sensors, and Beacons.


0.1 Used as a building material. Also used for crafting Pressure Plates, Buttons, Stone Brick blocks, Redstone Comparators, and Redstone Repeaters.


0.3 Used to make Brick blocks and Flower Pots.

Nether Brick

0.1 Used to make Nether Brick blocks.

Hardened Clay

0.35 Decoration block. Also used to make Stained Clay.

Cracked Stone Bricks

Stone Bricks
0.1 Decoration block. Also spawns in strongholds.

Wasting ores[edit | edit source]

The following ores can be smelted, but in these cases this is unnecessary and wasteful. All these ores will yield their product freely when mined with an appropriate pickaxe. The ore blocks themselves can only be obtained with the Silk Touch enchantment. Also, these ores either produce multiple drops when mined, or they may do so when mined with a Fortune-enchanted pickaxe. Smelting, however, will always give only a single unit of the product. Mining the ore blocks will also give far more experience.

Product Ingredient Exp Description


Diamond Ore
1.0 Used to craft various items.
When normally mined drops 1 diamond and 3–7 exp.

Lapis Lazuli

Lapis Lazuli Ore
0.2 Used as a dye, to enchant items, and to craft a Lapis Lazuli Block.
When normally mined drops 4–8 lapis lazuli and 2–5 exp.


Redstone Ore
0.7 Used in crafting, brewing, and redstone circuits.
When normally mined drops 4–5 redstone and 1–5 exp.


Coal Ore
0.1 Used as a fuel and as lighting.
When normally mined drops 1 coal and 0–2 exp.


Emerald Ore
1.0 Used for trading and to craft Emerald Blocks.
When normally mined drops 1 emerald and 3–7 exp.

Nether Quartz

Nether Quartz Ore
0.2 Used to craft various items
When normally mined drops 1 Nether Quartz and 2–5 exp.

Other smeltable items[edit | edit source]

Product Ingredient Exp Description


0.15 Used to craft Torches and Fire Charges and as fuel in a Furnace or in a Minecart with Furnace. Ingredient must be a plain wood block, not sticks or planks.

Cactus Green

0.2 Used as a dye.


Wet Sponge
0.15 Used to soak up water. Drying a Sponge allows it to be reused.

Popped Chorus Fruit

Chorus Fruit
0.1 Used to make purpur blocks.

Fuel efficiency[edit | edit source]

See also: Tutorials/Choosing a fuel

Sleeping while smelting/cooking items will not speed up the process.

Note that after a piece of fuel has started burning, you cannot stop it from burning, though you can remove any unburnt pieces of fuel. If there are fewer items that the fuel can burn, some of the fuel will be wasted. Accordingly, you will usually want to burn things in multiples of 8 (lumps of coal or charcoal), or occasionally 3 (2 wooden planks). For individual smelts, you can use saplings, 2 of which smelt 1 item.

When starting a new world, burning your wooden tools (once you have stone) is a quick way to make your first lump or two of charcoal. They each still smelt a complete item even if almost used up.

For larger jobs, a single lava bucket or a block of coal can burn more items than will fit in the furnace—both input and output are limited to a stack of 64, but a block of coal burns 80, and lava can burn 100. To use lava efficiently, keep the remaining load of 36 or 16 items handy, and put it in during the middle third of the burn (after it has done that many, but before it exhausts the original stack). Remember to both refill the un-smelted items, and remove the smelted product. A despawn timer on a note block may help.

Alternately, you can use hoppers on top and bottom of the furnace. This will automatically feed and empty the furnace, but loses the experience gained by manually unloading the furnace. For larger smelting jobs, a third hopper can feed in fuel (empty buckets will go in the output hopper).

Fuel Burning time
Number of
per fuel
Number of
operations per
stack of fuel
Amount to
light a furnace
all night
Seconds per
wood block (log)
[note 1]
Amount needed to
burn a stack (64) of items

Lava Bucket
20000 ticks
100 100 0.54 0.64

Block of Coal
16000 ticks
80 5120 0.68 0.8

Blaze Rod
2400 ticks
12 768 4.5 5.3

1600 ticks
8 512 6.75 8

1600 ticks
8 512 6.75 23.7s to 80s[note 2] 8

300 ticks
1.5 96 36 15s 43

Wood Planks
300 ticks
1.5 96 36 60s 43

Wooden Pressure Plate
300 ticks
1.5 96 36 30s 43

300 ticks
1.5 96 36 36s 43

Fence Gate
300 ticks
1.5 96 36 15s 43

Wooden Stairs
300 ticks
1.5 96 36 40s 43

300 ticks
1.5 96 36 20s 43

Crafting Table
300 ticks
1.5 96 36 15s 43

300 ticks
1.5 96 36 10s 43

300 ticks
1.5 96 36 7.5s 43

Trapped Chest
300 ticks
1.5 96 36 6.9s 43

Daylight Sensor
300 ticks
1.5 96 36 40s 43

300 ticks
1.5 96 36 7.5s 43

Note Block
300 ticks
1.5 96 36 7.5s 43

Mushrooms (block)
300 ticks
1.5 96 36 43

300 ticks
1.5 96 36 120s 43

Wooden Tools and Weapons
200 ticks
1 1 54 5s to 10s 64

Wood Slabs
150 ticks
0.75 48 72 60s 86

100 ticks
0.5 32 108 128

100 ticks
0.5 32 108 40s 128
  1. This column is the unit-of-wood-equivalent. Calculation made once the fuel item is converted back to wood.
  2. This value is dependent upon the fuel used to smelt the wood. Using a trapped chest to produce one charcoal produces the lower number, while using a fuel that does not consume wood, such as saplings or lava, produces the higher number. Using charcoal as the fuel gives a figure of 70s per wood block since the player will obtain 7 additional charcoal for each 8 wood consumed.

Video[edit | edit source]

History[edit | edit source]

0.31 January 29, 2010 Flint and steel can be used to smelt ores and cook food.[1]
February 19, 2010 Furnaces were added to replace the cooking/smelting function of flint and steel.
February 23, 2010 The first smeltable item is cobblestone, which can be smelted into stone.
Official release
1.3.1 12w18a Wooden tools work in furnaces as one full furnace use.
12w22a Smelting various ores in furnaces now rewards players with experience points.
When using lava for fuel, you get the bucket back.
1.8 When a furnace runs out of fuel, the smelting progress will rewind at 2x speed.
Pocket Edition Alpha
0.3.2 Furnaces added, meaning that every available block and item can now be gathered, crafted or smelted into. (no more unlimited items).
0.8.0 Wooden tools can now be used as fuel.
Lava buckets can now be placed to smelt items (100 items).

Trivia[edit | edit source]

  • It takes 10 minutes and 40 seconds to smelt a stack of 64 items in a single furnace, although this time can be reduced by splitting the load between multiple furnaces. This can be reduced even further by using redstone mechanics.
  • Burning wood with wood planks to make charcoal is over 5 times more efficient than using the wood itself as fuel. It is just over 1¼ times more efficient than using planks.
  • When making charcoal, it's most efficient to convert 17 of the logs into planks (for fuel)
  • On Pocket Edition, you can use bows as fuel, its durability is same as a wooden tool.
  • If you want to use wooden tools as fuel, the most efficient way is to use it until its durability reaches 0, then use it as a fuel afterwards.
  • If you put an enchanted item in a furnace, it will lose its enchantments, even if it isn't burned. However, as of Pocket Edition 0.12.3 alpha, enchanted wooden items cannot be used as fuel.
  • Currently, in Pocket Edition, when the furnace runs out of fuel, it will not rewind backwards at x2 speed, and will simply disappear instantly.

See also[edit | edit source]

References[edit | edit source]