# Light

The difference between Smooth Lighting on and off.

Lighting in Minecraft affects visibility, mob spawning, and plant growth. Lighting can be provided by sunlight, torches, glowstone, fire, lava, furnaces, Nether portals and certain other objects.

## Brightness

There are 16 light levels, which are specified by an integer from 0 (the minimum) to 15 (the maximum). The game uses the light level of a block to compute the brightness of a given block.

If the light level is 0, a block will be close to black. If the light level is 15, a white block will be close to white, while a red block will be red.

In the Overworld and the End, the brightness of a block decreases by 20% per light level. Note that this is an exponential decrease, so light level 13, for example, represents 64%, rather than 60%, of the maximum brightness. A light level of 0 corresponds to a brightness of 3.52%.

In the Nether, the brightness decreases by 10% per light level. For example, a light level of 13 equates to a brightness of 81%. A light level of 0 represents a brightness of 20.59%, approximately light level 8 in the Overworld.

Light Level Overworld and End Nether
0 3.52% 20.59%
1 4.40% 22.88%
2 5.50% 25.42%
3 6.87% 28.24%
4 8.59% 31.38%
5 10.74% 34.87%
6 13.42% 38.74%
7 16.78% 43.05%
8 20.97% 47.83%
9 26.21% 53.14%
10 32.77% 59.05%
11 40.96% 65.61%
12 51.20% 72.90%
13 64.00% 81.00%
14 80.00% 90.00%
15 100.00% 100.00%

## Effects of light

When referring to this table, please note that "Level" indicates light level and "y: #" indicates y-axis (altitude) coordinates. Keep in mind that light level is only one of the considerations that apply to mob spawning and plant growth. Refer to each mob's wiki page for more details.

Level 0–3 Level 4-7 Level 8 Level 9 Level 10 Level 11 Level 12 Level 13–15
Bats Spawn at y: 0-62 Spawn at y: 0-62 from October 20th to November 3rd Passive
Blazes Spawn in Nether Fortresses Hostile
Wither skeletons Spawn in Nether Fortresses Hostile
Silverfish[note 1] Spawn in the Overworld Spawn only from monster eggs
Slimes Spawn in swamp biomes at y: 51–69 Spawn in certain chunks in any biome at y: 0–40
Zombies & skeletons Spawn in the Overworld Hostile Burns in sunlight
Creepers & witches Spawn in the Overworld Hostile
Spiders & cave spiders Spawn in the Overworld Hostile Neutral unless provoked
Endermen Spawn in the Overworld and the End Neutral unless provoked Becomes passive in sunlight
Zombie pigmen
(Pocket Edition)
Hostile Burns in sunlight[note 2]
Ambience Triggered Not triggered
Snow & Ice[note 3] Forms Forms and melts Melts
Mushrooms Spread Uproot unless on mycelium or podzol
Flowers[note 4] Uproot unless able to receive a maximum of level 8 or more from the sky[note 5] Remain planted
Saplings, crops, pumpkins, melons, carrots, potatoes, and Beetroots[note 6] Uproot unless able to receive a maximum of level 8 or more from the sky[note 5] Does not grow Grows
Grass and mycelium source blocks[note 7] Become dirt if opaque block or partially transparent block on top Does not spread Spreads to nearby dirt (see below)
Grass and mycelium spread to dirt[note 7] Does not accept spread Accepts spread if no opaque or partially transparent block on top
1. These restrictions only apply when spawning from a monster spawner, and not from a Silverfish block.
2. Zombie pigmen are immune to fire, they just show the burning animation.
3. Sunlight does not affect snow and ice. The relevant light level is what would be in the block if it were air.
4. This applies to the light level of the flower block itself, not the block below them in which they are planted.
5. a b
A bug in Minecraft 1.7 and newer allows flowers, saplings, and seedlings to remain planted in any light. The bug was fixed for crops (but not flowers, saplings, melons, or pumpkins) in 1.8.
6. For growth, the relevant light level is that in the block above the plant. The growth of pumpkins or melons from a stem checks the light above the stem, not the block where the pumpkin or melon grows. For uprooting, the relevant light level is the plant block itself.
7. a b
The relevant light level is that in the air block above it. "Partially transparent" blocks are those that reduce light by at least 3 levels (2 in addition to the normal propagation reduction), such as water or ice.

## Light-emitting blocks

Comparison of the different light levels that blocks emit.

The following values are the brightness of the block itself:

Icon Block Light Level
Beacon 15
End Portal Block 15
Fire 15
Glowstone 15
Jack o'Lantern 15
Lava 15
Redstone Lamp, when powered 15
Sea Lantern 15
Torch 14
Furnace, when active 13
Glowing Obsidian 12
Nether Portal Block 11
Redstone Ore, when touched 9
Ender Chest 7
Redstone Torch, when on 7
Brewing Stand 1
Brown Mushroom 1
Dragon Egg 1
End Portal block 1

### Other

Icon Source Light Level

Sunlight 15

Sunlight, during Rain or Snowfall 12

Sunlight, during a Thunderstorm 10[note 1]

Moonlight 4
1. During thunderstorms, hostile mobs are allowed to spawn as if the sky light level were actually 5.

 T 13 12 11 10 9 8 9 10 11 12 13 T 13 12 11 10 9 8 9 8 9 10 11 12 13 12 11 10 9 8 9 10 9 8 9 10 11 12 11 10 9 8 9 10 11 10 9 8 9 10 11 10 9 8 9 10 11 12 11 10 9 8 9 10 9 8 9 10 11 12 13 12 11 10 9 8 9 8 9 10 11 12 13 T 13 12 11 10 9 8

The light from light-emitting blocks decreases by one light-level for each meter (block) of distance from the light source. Note that this applies to each of the 3 axes including N/S, E/W, and up/down. This fact is significant for preventing hostile mob spawning. If a torch (level 14) is placed on a wall two blocks up from the floor, the light level on the floor one block away from the wall will be 11 (e.g. 14 minus 2 down, minus 1 south). If the torch were placed on the floor at floor level, then the light level on the floor one block away from the wall will be 13 (e.g. 14 minus 0 down, minus 1 south).

Light decreases diagonally by "taxicab distance", or the sum of the distance along each axis. This means that if a torch (level 14) is placed on the floor, the light level on the adjacent floor blocks in all four direction will be 13 while the diagonal blocks in all four directions will have light level 12 (e.g. 14 minus 1 south, minus 1 east). Along a floor, this effect produces a diamond-shaped pattern of illumination around the light source. Remember, light decrease takes place in three dimensions. This means that if a torch (level 14) is placed on a wall one block up from the floor, then the block on the floor that is diagonally one block way will have a light level of 11 (e.g. 14 minus 1 south, minus 1 east, minus 1 down).

The minimum number of light sources needed to prevent hostile mob spawning in the Overworld is difficult to determine because light decreases in all three dimensions. Given a perfectly flat plane or floor, the cheapest and easiest solution is to place torches on the floor in a diamond pattern, with a torch every 6th block (5 blocks in-between each torch diagonally).

Note: To get a nicer looking surface, these torches can be replaced with glowstone or pumpkin lanterns embedded into the floor. The same pattern may be used even though this reduces the light level on the floor by 1. This is because the glowstone and lanterns are 1 light level stronger than torches.

Here, the yellow "T" represents a torch on the floor, and number is the light level of adjacent floor blocks. Note that no block is less than light level 8, which means that hostile mobs cannot spawn. The green is only to highlight the 5 blocks between each torch.

To safely light hallways (or straight tunnels in a mine) using the same technique depends on the width of the hall. For a single block wide hall, the torches may be placed up to 13 blocks apart. A 3-block hall requires torches every 11 blocks down the center while a 5-block hall needs them every 9 blocks. An even numbered width hallway must have them staggered since there is no center row. For a 2-block hall, space them 12 blocks (plus 1 block offset.) A 4-block hall needs them every 10 blocks plus offset. A 6-block hall requires them to be spaced every 8 blocks and this works whether they are offset by 1 or 3 blocks, or even if they are placed against the walls. For halls that are 7 blocks wide, simply use the pattern above. For wider 'halls' you can adapt the same pattern. Just realize that this pattern requires torches to be placed right against the walls for complete coverage. If you wish to use glowstone, lanterns or redstone torches in the ceiling, you must space them closer according to the height of the hall. Place them closer by twice the height. E.g., instead of 13 blocks in a 1-block hall, if it is 2 blocks high, place them 9 blocks apart (13 - 2 - 2.)

However, when outdoors, if the ground level changes by even one block, this decreases light further, requiring a different pattern. Additionally, when indoors it may be more aesthetically pleasing to light sources along walls or attached to the ceiling. But this means that the light level will decrease from ceiling to floor, and the light level of the floor is used to calculate mobs spawning.

## Light-filtering blocks

How ice affects light. Click through to see it animated between ice and water.

Opaque blocks prevent the spread of light while glass and portal interiors have no effect on light level.

All other transparent blocks reduce the spread of light. The following values are the amount each block decreases the light value. The light emitted decreases by one for each block of distance from the light source, more depending on the block through which it passes.

Icon Block Decrease
Farmland
Slab
Stairs
Ice 2
Water
Cobweb 0 but diffuses sky light at the top-most block
Leaves

Leaves and cobwebs do not have any extra effect on block light, but they do diffuse sky light. The light level from sunlight or moonlight is the same in each block of air in the column of air above the highest obstruction in the column. When placed, leaves and cobwebs obstruct that light column so that the lowest air block above the leaves acts as other light sources do. As you descend below the leaves, the light level diminishes with distance like it would from other light sources such as torches. To control this effect, create an opaque 1×1 chimney with leaves at its opening above you.

## Smooth lighting

Smooth lighting (which includes ambient occlusion as well as interpolating lighting across block faces) is the lighting engine added in Beta 1.3, with the help of MrMessiah.[1] This lighting engine is set on by default, and can be set to minimum, maximum, or off by accessing Video Options from the Options menu.

The engine blends lighting to add semi-realistic shadows and glowing from light sources. It darkens inside corners, resulting in small spaces appearing much darker. Before Beta 1.3, the feature could only be obtained by modifying the game with the help of MrMessiah's BetterLight mod.

The "Maximum" smooth lighting toggle fixes bugs with stairs. However, this is an optional toggle. The "Minimum" toggle increases performance, but does not fix the bug.

## History

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Minecraft has an extensive history when it comes to lighting. Classic's lighting model is simple and only checks whether a block is exposed to the sky. Indev's model is more complex and considers a block’s distance from the nearest sunlight and from the nearest light-emitting block. Alpha’s model is a refinement of Indev's, calculating sunlight and block-emitted light separately and using a different scale of light intensities. An earlier Beta update improved upon Alpha's model by adding the smooth lighting option, and in a later Beta update, the whole lighting engine was again rewritten to be much more efficient, have more detail, and be smooth in transition of lighting differentials.

### Classic

Light in Classic

In Classic, "sunlight" is emitted by the top edge of the map and will hit any block that is under it. It will pass through transparent blocks to light blocks underneath. Blocks that do not receive light are in a dim shadow that remains at the same level of brightness no matter how far they are from a light source.

### Indev/Infdev

In Indev and Infdev versions there are 16 degrees of brightness, with a maximum of 15 for full daylight and a minimum of 0 for almost complete darkness. Brightness is a linear scale and represents its value divided by 15, so for example 15 is 100% (1515) and 13 is 86.67% (1315).

Each block that emits light has its own luminance value and the light value diminishes by one level each block from its source. If the neighboring block already has a greater light value, it is ignored. The process is repeated for each block whose light value just changed.

During the day, sunlight has a maximum light value of 15. At dusk, it steadily decreases until it reaches a night-time minimum value of 4 representing moonlight. Sunlight is emitted by the top edge of the map, but does not diminish with distance from its “source”. A block lit by sunlight will be equally bright at any height or depth.

Lighting in Minecraft - Pocket Edition works the same as lighting in Minecraft.

### Alpha - Beta 1.2_02

Lighting in Alpha through pre-Beta 1.3 works as Indev and Infdev, except that the scale is different and is not linear.

Full daylight provides the maximum brightness of 15. Each value below this is 80% as bright as the one above it. For example, 14 is 80% as bright as sunlight, and 13 is 64% bright. This means that Level 0 still has 0.815·100% = 3.5% of the maximum brightness.

Sunlight in Alpha has its own light array and a behind-the-scenes optimization to make dawn and dusk smoother: the amount of light from the sky is pre-calculated and saved along with the blocks, because it never needs to change except when blocks are added or removed. During dusk, nighttime, and dawn, a "darkness" value is subtracted from the sky to create the effects of different times of day.

In the Nether, light decreases by 10% each level, rather than the normal 20%. This means it will never be totally dark in the Nether. The minimum light value is 20.59%, providing a permanent dim ambience equivalent to normal world's level 8.

The Halloween Update version Alpha 1.2.0 allowed monsters to spawn in higher light levels at lower depths, using the formula 16 − (Layer / 8). At level 8 and below, mobs could spawn even in sunlight. Notch reverted mob spawning to the original method in version Alpha 1.2.1, saying, "it was way too annoying. I have plans on what to do with this."

### Beta 1.3 - Beta 1.7.3

Lighting from Beta 1.3 to 1.7.3 works the same as how it was in Alpha, but is greater optimized to allow smooth lighting.

### Beta 1.8 - 1.4.7

Beta 1.8 pre-release light spectrum during day. The X axis represents exposure to block light sources (e.g.: torches) while the Y axis represents exposure to sunlight
Beta 1.8 pre-release light spectrum during night. The Y axis is colored slightly blue and represents the total exposure to moonlight

In Beta 1.8, a new lighting engine was implemented. The new engine has added and changed the following:

• The lighting of an area is influenced by the type of light source that is lighting the block: moonlight gives a blue tint, torches and lava give a reddish tint, and complete darkness and sunlight are the same as before.
• Changes in lighting are now instant, and can be gradual as changes in the time of day and the state of rainfall now smoothly change the lighting value rather than individually updating the lighting of chunks one by one.
• Using the new instant lighting, non-sunlight lighting now subtly flickers, although this feature is purely cosmetic and has no effect on gameplay.
• Sunset is much more intense and realistic than before, and its intensity dims if the player turns away from it.
• At extreme depths, black fog closes in. At the bedrock level, a torch can no longer be seen from 11 squares distance. This effect is inhibited by proximity to open sky (i.e. the degree to which the place where you are standing would be lit by sunlight), regardless of whether the sun is up. Digging a shaft from the surface down to your room will allow you to see far, even at bedrock level.
• When inside the void, lighting operates similar to Classic, where objects in the void will remain at a constant brightness, regardless of how far they travel away from a light source, provided that they remain directly underneath an opening into the void. The brightness of the particular "column" of space is based on the current light level at level 0, the bottom bedrock layer. This applies to all entities, as well as particles.
• Additionally, sitting in the void underneath a shaft which allows sunlight directly into it will remove the void fog, regardless to whether is it daytime.

In snapshot 12w39a, Dinnerbone fixed black patches in world generation,[2] and began overhauling the lighting systems such as changing the lighting of blocks to allow for directional lighting.[3][4]

### 1.5

As of 1.5, there were several lighting optimizations, including more realistic lighting and lighting interacting correctly with slabs and stairs (Maximum smooth lighting). However, furnaces emitting light from all sides, and black spots in world generation were not fixed. As well, there are now three different levels of smooth lighting: Off, Minimum, and Maximum.

### 1.7.2

Black patches in world generation and structure generation were made a lot less common in the 1.7.2 update.[5]

### 1.8

In snapshot 14w30a, the lighting engine was significantly improved, removing most black spots present in world generation.

In snapshot 14w34c, the void fog and particles were removed in order to improve performance.

Redstone repeaters no longer emit light.

## Trivia

• Hostile mobs can spawn in areas where there should be light, but there isn't. This is because the game thinks there is a light level of 0.
• Smooth Lighting is not apparent on the top of water or on paintings.
• A 21×21 square of opaque material is enough to spawn mobs in the shadow underneath.
• If zombies or skeletons are in water or in the low light levels caused by trees, they can survive through the daytime.
• In Minecraft's source code, the luminescences are defined using the floating point values in the third column. In a weird quirk, these floating point numbers are fractions of 16, but are multiplied by 15 to get the integer light value. This means that both 0/16 and 1/16 (0.0 and 0.0625) correspond to the integer light value 0.