Item Repair is a feature that allows players to repair damaged tools, armor, or other items with durability by combining them on a crafting grid. Two items of the same type and material can be placed anywhere on the crafting grid, and the result is a single repaired item. The repaired item will have usage points equal to the sum of the old items' usage points plus a 'repair bonus' of 5% of the item's maximum uses, up to a limit of the maximum durability for that item.
Even if both items were enchanted with exactly the same enchantments, the repaired object will always be unenchanted. Hence, given the current random enchantment system, using a 'junk' item in a repair may sometimes be useful for removing an unwanted enchantment from an item prior to trying to enchant it again.
Repairing gives a slight benefit in conserving inventory space, as it combines two non-stackable objects into one, and the ~5% 'repair bonus' allows you to get slightly more total uses out of tools, which helps eke out resources a little further.
Tools made of different materials (for example, a wood and a stone pickaxe) cannot be combined.
 Formula for uses restored
The formula for determining how many uses a repaired item will have restored to it in the crafting box, is as follows:
min( Item A uses + Item B uses + floor(Max uses / 20), Max uses)
'floor' means round down to the smaller integer, which rounds the (possibly fractional) 5% bonus. 'min(x,y)' means whichever of x or y is smallest, which effectively limits repairing result to "Max uses" (repair to 100%)
Example: Two stone axes have 10 and 45 uses. A newly crafted stone axe would have 132 uses.
- 10 + 45 + 132/20 = 55 + 6.6 = 61
Or, in terms of percentage (approximated):
- 7.5% + 34% + 5% = 46.5%
Thus, the greatest benefit is gained when the two items have a combined durability of at most approximately 95%. You can combine 47.5% + 47.5%, 94% + 1%, 10% + 10% or any other values that total 95% or less. The order in which items are combined does not matter; one sequence of repairs gives exactly the same durability as any other.
However, note in the example, repairing a stone tool restores a bonus of 6 durability, which is actually only 6/132 = 4.5%. The precise combined durability for efficient repairs is shown in the following table.
|Item||Actual bonus (%)||Actual bonus (uses)||Combined durability (%)||Combined durability (uses)|
|Carrot on a Stick||3.8%||1||96.2%||25|
|Flint and Steel||4.6%||3||95.4%||62|
A good strategy is to wear down two items until both have less than 95% combined durability remaining, but are not so damaged that you risk accidentally breaking them. Put each item in a crafting slot, and check whether the resulting repaired item still has a damage bar. If it does, you can be sure of gaining the full 5% repair bonus for combining those two items, and if it does not, you will lose some of the repair bonus. (A 'perfect' repair is theoretically possible, but unlikely in practice.)
Note that combining items whose combined durability is more than 100% actually wastes more resources than simply using tools until they break.
The precise combined durability for efficient repairs for all types of armor is shown in the following table.
|Armor piece||Actual bonus (%)||Actual bonus (uses)||Combined durability (%)||Combined durability (uses)|
 Anvil Repair
An Anvil can also repair items in two different ways. This will cost experience levels, but unlike the crafting table, the anvil will preserve or even enhance the target's enchantments. The anvil can combine the enchantments on two similar items, or rename any item (not just the ones it can repair). The costs are complex, so only a summary is given here.
The first repair mode is similar to repairing in the crafting box, in that you combine two items of the same basic type, a "target" and a "sacrifice". The anvil's second repair mode applies only to those tools whose material is in their default name, such as an Iron Sword or Leather Cap.
 Villager Trading
Priest villagers may offer to enchant an item (chosen at random) at the cost of 2-4 emeralds. The item's durability is ignored and the resulting enchanted item will always be unused.
|1.0.0||1.9pre3||Added the capability to repair items.|
|1.4.2||??||Bonus for (traditional) item repairing is reduced to 5%. Prior this update, this bonus was 10% of the max durability.|
|12w41a||Added the anvil. The original item repair system is unchanged.|
- You can repair Armor, Weapons and Tools by putting the object into the first space in the anvil. In the second space, you put the material, the object is crafted from. For example, if you want to repair your Iron Axe, you can put the Iron Axe in the first space and an iron ingot into the second space, This is far cheaper than making an entirely new Axe.
A series of screenshots showing the new item repair interface.