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Damage represents injury from attacks or natural causes. Players and mobs in Minecraft each have a supply of health points, which are reduced when they are injured. The player has 20 (Heart.svgHeart.svgHeart.svgHeart.svgHeart.svgHeart.svgHeart.svgHeart.svgHeart.svgHeart.svg) health , but these are measured on a health gauge with 10 hearts. Thus each health point is "12 a heart", shown as 1 (Half Heart.svg). Mobs have varying numbers of health points, but these are not generally visible to players. However, when riding a tame horse/donkey/mule/pig, the player can see their mount's health, and a dog's health is visible in its tail angle.

Damage from attacks or natural causes will subtract from a player or mob's current health. When their health reaches zero, they die. Players can also recover health naturally by being well-fed, or through magical effects. Most mobs do not recover health except through magic, but horses and dogs can be healed by feeding them.

Armor will absorb some of the damage that would have been done to its wearer, but will take damage itself (to durability) in the process.

Damage to tools and armor can be viewed in the item's tooltip by pressing the debug key combination F3 + H.

How damage is stored and displayed[edit | edit source]

Damage is recorded differently than one would expect by looking at the health gauge in game. A player is shown to have 20 health, represented as 10 hearts (each half of a heart representing 1 (Half Heart.svg). But internally, the values are actually multiplied by 10, so internally a player has 200 health, and each half of a heart represents 10 health. This can be seen in game by using a Scoreboard objective to display damage taken or dealt. This is likely done because the formula for damage is complex and can end up causing the player to do damage that would be a fraction of a health point when using potions and/or enchantments. If those values less than a full health point were ignored many weapons would do less damage than they are supposed to. For example, an attack with a fist does 10 damage (1 (Half Heart.svg)), and a critical hit with the fist does 15 damage (1.5 (Half Heart.svg)). If the partial values were ignored, there would be no difference between a normal hit and a critical hit when using a fist.

When displaying a player's health, the game will look at a player's internal health, and round that value up to the next 10 for the display health. For example, if a player has an internal health value of 191-200, the game will display it as 20 (Heart.svgHeart.svgHeart.svgHeart.svgHeart.svgHeart.svgHeart.svgHeart.svgHeart.svgHeart.svg). If the player has 181-190 internal health, the game displays it as 19 (Heart.svgHeart.svgHeart.svgHeart.svgHeart.svgHeart.svgHeart.svgHeart.svgHeart.svgHalf Heart.svg), and so on. For example if one player hits a second player with a critical hit with the fist (15 damage), the second player's internal health becomes 185 and displayed as 19 (Heart.svgHeart.svgHeart.svgHeart.svgHeart.svgHeart.svgHeart.svgHeart.svgHeart.svgHalf Heart.svg) on their HUD. If the second player is hit by another critical hit with a fist, their internal health would be reduced by another 15 points, making it 170. Then the game will display it as 17 (Heart.svgHeart.svgHeart.svgHeart.svgHeart.svgHeart.svgHeart.svgHeart.svgHalf Heart.svg) on that player's HUD.

Dealing damage[edit | edit source]

Players can deal damage by hitting mobs or other players with items at close (melee) range. An "unarmed" attack only does 1 (Half Heart.svg) damage, but weapons and certain tools do more:

  • Swords are crafted for this purpose. While swords do not extend attack range, they deal significantly more damage than with any other item or tool except axes.
  • Axes, pickaxes, and shovels also deal more damage than bare fists. Also, axes deal most damage, but its attack speed is slowest.
  • Any other item is equivalent to fists and does the same damage. This includes hoes, and hitting something directly with a bow or held arrow.
  • While falling, melee attacks deal a critical hit (150% of the weapon's damage including potion effects, but before enchantments are applied, rounded down to the nearest hit point).

There are a few ranged weapons in the game:

  • Arrows are shot by holding and releasing right click when wielding a bow, and do damage depend on the "charge" of the bow (see below).
  • Snowballs, only inflict damage on blazes, while eggs don't deal damage to mobs. Both still knock mobs back as if they had been damaged.
  • Splash potions can be thrown, inflicting various effects depending on the potion.
  • Ender pearls don't deal damage to mobs.
  • Fishing rods cannot be used to damage mobs.

A few items can be used to damage monsters indirectly:

  • The Flint and steel allows the player to light a block on fire, which causes all players and mobs that touch the fire to be set on fire (some monsters are fireproof, mostly those native to the Nether). Players and mobs that are ignited stay alight until 8 (Heart.svgHeart.svgHeart.svgHeart.svg) hit points of damage is dealt, until they touch water, or use a fire resistance potion.
  • Likewise, contact with Lava also ignites players and mobs.
  • TNT is currently the only controllable explosive in Minecraft, and can be triggered by fire, redstone currents, or another explosion.

The below values detail the damage dealt per hit using various weapons. Critical hits can do variable extra damage.

Tool Attack speed Attack damage Damage/Second (DPS)
Sword 1.6
4 (Heart.svgHeart.svg)

5 (Heart.svgHeart.svgHalf Heart.svg)

6 (Heart.svgHeart.svgHeart.svg)

7 (Heart.svgHeart.svgHeart.svgHalf Heart.svg)

4 (Heart.svgHeart.svg)





Shovel 1
2.5 (Heart.svgHalf Heart.svg)

3.5 (Heart.svgHalf Heart.svg)

4.5 (Heart.svgHeart.svgHalf Heart.svg)

5.5 (Heart.svgHeart.svgHalf Heart.svg)

2.5 (Heart.svgHalf Heart.svg)





Pickaxe 1.2
2 (Heart.svg)

3 (Heart.svgHalf Heart.svg)

4 (Heart.svgHeart.svg)

5 (Heart.svgHeart.svgHalf Heart.svg)

2 (Heart.svg)










7 (Heart.svgHeart.svgHeart.svgHalf Heart.svg)

9 (Heart.svgHeart.svgHeart.svgHeart.svgHalf Heart.svg)

9 (Heart.svgHeart.svgHeart.svgHeart.svgHalf Heart.svg)

9 (Heart.svgHeart.svgHeart.svgHeart.svgHalf Heart.svg)

7 (Heart.svgHeart.svgHeart.svgHalf Heart.svg)









1 (Half Heart.svg)


3[note 1]

4[note 1]

Other 4 1 (Half Heart.svg) 4[note 1]
  1. a b c
    Against a single target, DPS is effectively limited to 2 due to damage immunity.

Some other items will do damage as well

Item Damage
Arrows (from a Bow)
1 (Half Heart.svg)10 (Heart.svgHeart.svgHeart.svgHeart.svgHeart.svg) [note 1]
Fire (Contact)
1 (Half Heart.svg) per half-second
Fire (Burning)
1 (Half Heart.svg) per second
Lava (Contact)
4 (Heart.svgHeart.svg) per half-second
TNT (Explosion)
59 (Heart.svg × 29.5) [note 2]
  1. Depending on charge.
  2. The damage will decrease the further it is away from the core of the explosion.

Attack cooldown[edit | edit source]

Attack indicator (crosshair), empty and charged
Attack indicator (hotbar), empty and charged

Attacking too quickly will reduce the strength of attacks. The base damage done (as a fraction of the full possible damage) depends on the time between attacks, which is also reflected in the height of the held weapon on screen and the attack indicator bar (which is configurable in the options menu):

Item Time (seconds)
0.00 0.05 0.10 0.15 0.20 0.25 0.30 0.35 0.40 0.45 0.50 0.55 0.60 0.65 0.70 0.75 0.80 0.85 0.90 0.95 1.00 1.05 1.10 1.15 1.20 1.25
Sword 20.13% 21.15% 23.20% 26.27% 30.37% 35.49% 41.63% 48.80% 56.99% 66.21% 76.45% 87.71% 100%
Shovel 20.05% 20.45% 21.25% 22.45% 24.05% 26.05% 28.45% 31.25% 34.45% 38.05% 42.05% 46.45% 51.25% 56.45% 62.05% 68.05% 74.45% 81.25% 88.45% 96.05% 100%
Pickaxe 20.07% 20.65% 21.80% 23.53% 25.83% 28.71% 32.17% 36.20% 40.81% 45.99% 51.75% 58.09% 65.00% 72.49% 80.55% 89.19% 98.41% 100%

20.03% 20.29% 20.80% 21.57% 22.59% 23.87% 25.41% 27.20% 29.25% 31.55% 34.11% 36.93% 40.00% 43.33% 46.91% 50.75% 54.85% 59.20% 63.81% 68.67% 73.79% 79.17% 84.80% 90.69% 96.83% 100%

20.04% 20.36% 21.01% 21.98% 23.28% 24.90% 26.84% 29.11% 31.70% 34.62% 37.86% 41.42% 45.31% 49.52% 54.06% 58.92% 64.10% 69.61% 75.44% 81.60% 88.08% 94.88% 100%

20.05% 20.45% 21.25% 22.45% 24.05% 26.05% 28.45% 31.25% 34.45% 38.05% 42.05% 46.45% 51.25% 56.45% 62.05% 68.05% 74.45% 81.25% 88.45% 96.05% 100%

20.05% 20.45% 21.25% 22.45% 24.05% 26.05% 28.45% 31.25% 34.45% 38.05% 42.05% 46.45% 51.25% 56.45% 62.05% 68.05% 74.45% 81.25% 88.45% 96.05% 100%

20.20% 21.80% 25.00% 29.80% 36.20% 44.20% 53.80% 65.00% 77.80% 92.20% 100%

20.45% 24.05% 31.25% 42.05% 56.45% 74.45% 96.05% 100%

20.80% 27.20% 40.00% 59.20% 84.80% 100%
Other 20.80% 27.20% 40.00% 59.20% 84.80% 100%

The "attackSpeed" attribute controls the length of the cooldown time, with the time taken being T = 1 / attackSpeed * 20 ticks. The damage multiplier is then 0.2 + ((t + 0.5) / T) ** 2 * 0.8, restricted to the range 0.2–1, where t is the number of ticks since the last attack or item switch.

Damage done by enchantments (Sharpness, Smite, and Bane of Arthropods) is also reduced, but not as severely (the multiplier is not squared):

Item Time (seconds)
0.00 0.05 0.10 0.15 0.20 0.25 0.30 0.35 0.40 0.45 0.50 0.55 0.60 0.65 0.70 0.75 0.80 0.85 0.90 0.95 1.00 1.05 1.10 1.15 1.20 1.25
Sword 4.00% 12.00% 20.00% 28.00% 36.00% 44.00% 52.00% 60.00% 68.00% 76.00% 84.00% 92.00% 100%
Shovel 2.50% 7.50% 12.50% 17.50% 22.50% 27.50% 32.50% 37.50% 42.50% 47.50% 52.50% 57.50% 62.50% 67.50% 72.50% 77.50% 82.50% 87.50% 92.50% 97.50% 100%
Pickaxe 3.00% 9.00% 15.00% 21.00% 27.00% 33.00% 39.00% 45.00% 51.00% 57.00% 63.00% 69.00% 75.00% 81.00% 87.00% 93.00% 99.00% 100%

2.00% 6.00% 10.00% 14.00% 18.00% 22.00% 26.00% 30.00% 34.00% 38.00% 42.00% 46.00% 50.00% 54.00% 58.00% 62.00% 66.00% 70.00% 74.00% 78.00% 82.00% 86.00% 90.00% 94.00% 98.00% 100%

2.25% 6.75% 11.25% 15.75% 20.25% 24.75% 29.25% 33.75% 38.25% 42.75% 47.25% 51.75% 56.25% 60.75% 65.25% 69.75% 74.25% 78.75% 83.25% 87.75% 92.25% 96.75% 100%

2.50% 7.50% 12.50% 17.50% 22.50% 27.50% 32.50% 37.50% 42.50% 47.50% 52.50% 57.50% 62.50% 67.50% 72.50% 77.50% 82.50% 87.50% 92.50% 97.50% 100%

2.50% 7.50% 12.50% 17.50% 22.50% 27.50% 32.50% 37.50% 42.50% 47.50% 52.50% 57.50% 62.50% 67.50% 72.50% 77.50% 82.50% 87.50% 92.50% 97.50% 100%

5.00% 15.00% 25.00% 35.00% 45.00% 55.00% 65.00% 75.00% 85.00% 95.00% 100%

7.50% 22.50% 37.50% 52.50% 67.50% 82.50% 97.50% 100%

10.00% 30.00% 50.00% 70.00% 90.00% 100%
Other 10.00% 30.00% 50.00% 70.00% 90.00% 100%

Critical hits[edit | edit source]

A critical hit performed on a sheep.
A critical hit performed on a shorn sheep.

'Critical hits' are attacks that deal extra damage compared to regular attacks. Critical melee strikes, regardless of the weapon used, cause small star particles to fly out of the target who was critically hit. "Critical arrows", which occur when the bow is fired fully charged, leave a trail of the same small star particles as they fly through the air. Critical hits affect all damageable entities including players, mobs, paintings, boats and minecarts.

In melee, a critical hit occurs when a player attacks a mob while falling, including while coming down from a jump, but not while jumping up. The attack deals 150% of the attack's base damage (before enchantments or armor are applied).

The requirements for a melee critical hit are:

  • The player must be falling.
  • The player must not be on the ground.
  • The player must not be on a ladder/ vine etc.
  • The player must not be in water.
  • The player must not be affected by blindness.
  • The player must not be riding an entity.
  • The player must not be sprinting.
  • The base attack must not be reduced to 84.8% damage or lower due to cooldown.

Video[edit | edit source]

Damage immunity[edit | edit source]

After sustaining damage from any source, a mob will turn red in color for 0.5 seconds. During this period, any other incoming damage will not be counted against the mob's total health.

For instance, if you attack a mob with a sword repeatedly hitting the mouse button, the sword's rate of fire will exceed the mob's allowable rate of incoming damage, and several of the attacks will not damage the mob even if they land. It is recommended to wait for a mob to be hittable again before swinging your sword, making your hits more precise. The tool used won't lose durability after unsuccessful attacks.

However, if a mob or player is recovering from damage and then receives higher damage, it gets counted. Players are also subject to damage immunity.

Damage inflicted by mobs[edit | edit source]

The damage mobs deal to players is affected by the difficulty of the game. The below values represent the amount of damage taken per hit.

  • This only applies to mobs attacking the player. Mobs attacking other mobs (wolves, iron golems, etc.) always deal the 'Normal' damage listed, regardless of difficulty.
  • Values for the creeper and ghast assume the player is directly adjacent to the explosion.
  • The damage of slimes and magma cubes depends on their size. Tiny-sized slimes, while hostile, are unable to do damage directly.
  • In contrast, the damage for an iron golem just has a large random factor.
  • Mobs deal no damage on peaceful, apart from the wolf.
Mob Easy Normal Hard
Blaze 4 (Heart.svgHeart.svg) 6 (Heart.svgHeart.svgHeart.svg) 9 (Heart.svgHeart.svgHeart.svgHeart.svgHalf Heart.svg)
Blaze's fireball 5 (Heart.svgHeart.svgHalf Heart.svg) 5 (Heart.svgHeart.svgHalf Heart.svg) 5 (Heart.svgHeart.svgHalf Heart.svg)
Cave Spider 2 (Heart.svg) 2 (Poisoned Heart.svg) 3 (Poisoned Heart.svgPoisoned Half Heart.svg)
Creeper's explosion 25 (Heart.svg × 12.5) 49 (Heart.svg × 24.5) 73 (Heart.svg × 36.5)
Charged Creeper's explosion 49 (Heart.svg × 24.5) 97 (Heart.svg × 48.5) 145 (Heart.svg × 72.5)
Elder Guardian 5 (Heart.svgHeart.svgHalf Heart.svg) 8 (Heart.svgHeart.svgHeart.svgHeart.svg) 12 (Heart.svgHeart.svgHeart.svgHeart.svgHeart.svgHeart.svg)
Ender Dragon 6 (Heart.svgHeart.svgHeart.svg) 10 (Heart.svgHeart.svgHeart.svgHeart.svgHeart.svg) 15 (Heart.svgHeart.svgHeart.svgHeart.svgHeart.svgHeart.svgHeart.svgHalf Heart.svg)
Enderman 4 (Heart.svgHeart.svg) 7 (Heart.svgHeart.svgHeart.svgHalf Heart.svg) 10 (Heart.svgHeart.svgHeart.svgHeart.svgHeart.svg)
Endermite 2 (Heart.svg) 2 (Heart.svg) 2 (Heart.svg)
Ghast's fireball impact 6 (Heart.svgHeart.svgHeart.svg) 6 (Heart.svgHeart.svgHeart.svg) 6 (Heart.svgHeart.svgHeart.svg)
Ghast's fireball explosion 9 (Heart.svgHeart.svgHeart.svgHeart.svgHalf Heart.svg) 17 (Heart.svgHeart.svgHeart.svgHeart.svgHeart.svgHeart.svgHeart.svgHeart.svgHalf Heart.svg) 25 (Heart.svg × 12.5)
Giant (unused) 26 (Heart.svg × 13) 50 (Heart.svg × 25) 75 (Heart.svg × 37.5)
Guardian 4 (Heart.svgHeart.svg) 6 (Heart.svgHeart.svgHeart.svg) 9 (Heart.svgHeart.svgHeart.svgHeart.svgHalf Heart.svg)
Iron Golem 4 (Heart.svgHeart.svg) - 11 (Heart.svgHeart.svgHeart.svgHeart.svgHeart.svgHalf Heart.svg) 7 (Heart.svgHeart.svgHeart.svgHalf Heart.svg) - 21 (Heart.svg × 10.5) 10 (Heart.svgHeart.svgHeart.svgHeart.svgHeart.svg) - 31 (Heart.svg × 15.5)
Killer Bunny 5 (Heart.svgHeart.svgHalf Heart.svg) 8 (Heart.svgHeart.svgHeart.svgHeart.svg) 12 (Heart.svgHeart.svgHeart.svgHeart.svgHeart.svgHeart.svg)
Magma Cube (big) 4 (Heart.svgHeart.svg) 6 (Heart.svgHeart.svgHeart.svg) 9 (Heart.svgHeart.svgHeart.svgHeart.svgHalf Heart.svg)
Magma Cube (small) 3 (Heart.svgHalf Heart.svg) 4 (Heart.svgHeart.svg) 6 (Heart.svgHeart.svgHeart.svg)
Magma Cube (tiny) 2 (Heart.svg) 3 (Heart.svgHalf Heart.svg) 4 (Heart.svgHeart.svg)
Monster (removed) 1 (Half Heart.svg) 2 (Heart.svg) 3 (Heart.svgHalf Heart.svg)
Silverfish 1 (Half Heart.svg) 1 (Half Heart.svg) 1 (Half Heart.svg)
Skeleton's arrow 1 (Half Heart.svg) - 4 (Heart.svgHeart.svg) 1 (Half Heart.svg) - 4 (Heart.svgHeart.svg) 1 (Half Heart.svg) - 5 (Heart.svgHeart.svgHalf Heart.svg)
Slime (big) 3 (Heart.svgHalf Heart.svg) 4 (Heart.svgHeart.svg) 6 (Heart.svgHeart.svgHeart.svg)
Slime (small) 2 (Heart.svg) 2 (Heart.svg) 3 (Heart.svgHalf Heart.svg)
Slime (tiny) 0 (Empty Heart.svg) 0 (Empty Heart.svg) 0 (Empty Heart.svg)
Spider 2 (Heart.svg) 2 (Heart.svg) 3 (Heart.svgHalf Heart.svg)
Wither Skeleton 4 (Withered Heart.svgWithered Heart.svg) 7 (Withered Heart.svgWithered Heart.svgWithered Heart.svgWithered Half Heart.svg) 10 (Withered Heart.svgWithered Heart.svgWithered Heart.svgWithered Heart.svgWithered Heart.svg)
Wither's wither skull 5 (Heart.svgHeart.svgHalf Heart.svg) 8 (Withered Heart.svgWithered Heart.svgWithered Heart.svgWithered Heart.svg) 12 (Withered Heart.svgWithered Heart.svgWithered Heart.svgWithered Heart.svgWithered Heart.svgWithered Heart.svg)
Wolf (tamed) 3 (Heart.svgHalf Heart.svg) 4 (Heart.svgHeart.svg) 6 (Heart.svgHeart.svgHeart.svg)
Wolf (hostile) 2 (Heart.svg) 2 (Heart.svg) 3 (Heart.svgHalf Heart.svg)
Zombie 2 (Heart.svg) 4 (Heart.svgHeart.svg) 5 (Heart.svgHeart.svgHalf Heart.svg)
Zombie Pigman 5 (Heart.svgHeart.svgHalf Heart.svg) 9 (Heart.svgHeart.svgHeart.svgHeart.svgHalf Heart.svg) 13 (Heart.svgHeart.svgHeart.svgHeart.svgHeart.svgHeart.svgHalf Heart.svg)

Knockback[edit | edit source]

When receiving damage from a hostile mob you will also be knocked back, and similarly a mob will be knocked back when it is attacked. The resulting disorientation and loss of control should not be underestimated, as it is possible to be knocked back over a cliff or into lava, both of which are potentially fatal. A sprinting attack causes extra knockback. A thrown chicken egg or a snowball also causes knockback, despite not damaging most monsters. Players/Mobs riding an entity (typically a boat, a minecart, a pig or a horse) never receive any knockback when attacked.

Swords and axes deal approximately 1 extra block of knockback compared to other weapons. Swords and axes deal ~2.6 blocks of knockback whereas fists and other items deal ~1.6 blocks of knockback.

Natural damage[edit | edit source]

Besides mob attacks, players can take damage from several other sources in Minecraft.

Lightning damage[edit | edit source]

Lightning striking on or near the player will do 5 (Heart.svgHeart.svgHalf Heart.svg) damage, which can be reduced with armor (enchanted or not). Lightning strikes on the player are very rare, and only occur during thunderstorms. Mobs/players that get hit by lightning will be set on fire, but will be quickly put out from the rain during a thunderstorm.

Fall damage[edit | edit source]

Most mobs receive damage when falling from excessive heights. Armor itself does not reduce fall damage, however the enchantments Feather Falling and Protection do. Some mobs are immune to fall damage: chickens, ghasts, blazes, magma cubes, snow golems, iron golems, shulkers, ocelots, bats, and the wither. Horses treat all falls as half the actual distance.

Fall damage is calculated based on distance fallen rather than on velocity when hitting the ground. The distance is accumulated based on change in position each tick and rising does not reduce the accumulator, thus an entity bouncing in mid-air on the end of a lead will accumulate fatal amounts of fall distance despite never being more than a few blocks above the ground.

Fall damage is 1 (Half Heart.svg) for each block of fall distance after the third. Thus falling 4 blocks causes 1 (Half Heart.svg) damage, 2 (Heart.svg) damage for 5 blocks, 3 (Heart.svgHalf Heart.svg) for 6 blocks and so forth. Assuming full health (but no Feather Falling or relevant status effects), a 23 block fall should be fatal (23 - 3 = 20 (Heart.svgHeart.svgHeart.svgHeart.svgHeart.svgHeart.svgHeart.svgHeart.svgHeart.svgHeart.svg) of damage), but due to the way fall distance is calculated, a 23.5 block fall is required instead.[note 1]

In some cases, it is possible to avoid falling or otherwise survive a fall.

  • Sneaking (default ⇧ Left Shift) will prevent the player from falling off a drop of one block or greater.
  • Entering or being in water (when not in a boat) resets fall distance.
    • This typically includes falling into water of any depth.
  • Being in the area of effect of cobwebs resets fall distance.
  • Being in lava reduces fall distance by half each tick.
  • Flying using elytra such that the vertical movement is upwards, level, or less than 0.5 blocks per tick downwards resets fall distance to 1 block.
  • Moving into a ladder or vine's area of effect reduces fall distance to 0. This also applies to trapdoors when acting as a ladder.
    • Falling onto the top of a ladder will not reset fall distance and counts as hitting the ground.
    • Horses are unaffected by ladders and vines, and so their fall distance is not reset.
    • Spiders climbing a block count the block as a "ladder" for this purpose.
  • An entity riding another entity does not accumulate fall distance. However, when the ridden entity takes fall damage it damages all riders for the same fall distance.
  • A minecart's fall distance is reset when landing on rails.
  • Boats do not accumulate fall distance while in water deeper than 1 block.
  • Teleporting due to a thrown ender pearl resets fall distance, however the teleportation itself causes 5 (Heart.svgHeart.svgHalf Heart.svg) fall damage to players.
  • Wearing armor that is enchanted with feather falling or protection reduces fall damage based on the level of the enchantment.
  • Having the jump boost status effect reduces the effective fall distance by 1 block per level, e.g. falling 5 blocks with Jump Boost II counts as having fallen only 3.
  • Slime blocks negate all fall damage, but will send the entity bouncing into the air.
    • This does not apply to players sneaking.
  • Hay bales decrease fall damage to 20% of normal.

Drowning[edit | edit source]

The oxygen bar.

When a player runs out of air underwater, they will start drowning and will take approximately 2 (Heart.svg)/sec.[note 2] Mobs can drown as well, though they usually do not, as all mobs (besides iron golems) attempt to swim upward when in water. Squid will die in air instead of in water, and iron golems and guardians will not drown at all.

While mining, consider keeping at least one placeable solid block ready somewhere on your toolbar (such as dirt or cobblestone) for quick access. If you mine into a spring (or worse, the ocean), you should be able to place the block in the hole to prevent drowning.

If you place a torch on a vertical surface next to you at head height whilst underwater, you create an air bubble which lasts for the split second it takes the water to destroy the torch, thus refilling your oxygen meter without resurfacing. Ladders, signs, fences, trapdoors, doors and sugar cane can create permanent air bubbles underwater. You can also scoop up some water with a bucket to achieve the same effect, or destroy the block directly above you, if there is one.

In Pocket Edition 0.8.0, the player actually has 11 air bubbles but once submerged, the 11th bubble instantly disappears.

  1. The last tick of fall distance isn't added in when calculating fall damage. For certain heights, including 23-block falls, this discrepancy is enough to avoid an entire 1 (Half Heart.svg) of damage.
  2. Damage is taken when air supply value reaches -20. Usually air supply value decreases each tick, and resets to 0, after damaging player. The Respiration enchantment gives chance for air supply to not decrease itself current tick. Chance is x/(x+1), where x is level of enchant.

Anvil[edit | edit source]

A falling anvil deals 2 (Heart.svg) per block fallen after the first (e.g., an anvil that falls 4 blocks will deal 6 (Heart.svgHeart.svgHeart.svg) damage). The damage is capped at 40 (Heart.svg × 20), no matter how far the anvil falls. Wearing a helmet will reduce the damage by 25%, but this costs durability on said helmet.

Thorns Enchantment[edit | edit source]

When a player or mob deals melee or projectile damage to a player or mob that is wearing Thorns-enchanted armor, the attacker will also be damaged. The amount changes with the enchant level. ( (Level * 15)% chance of inflicting 1 (Half Heart.svg)-4 (Heart.svgHeart.svg) damage, or Level - 10 damage if level is over 10)

Suffocation[edit | edit source]

Suffocation happens when a player or a mob is unable to breathe because its head is inside of a opaque block. They will lose 1 (Half Heart.svg) every half-second (10 ticks). When inside a block, the player can easily step out of it as the blocks do not prevent their movement.

The player's screen will be a darkened form of which the block the player is suffocating. When the player is in third person mode, the view will automatically switch to first person mode.

The usual ways to get one's head inside a block are:

  • Sand or gravel falling into the space the player or mob occupies.
  • Riding a pig, boat or minecart or throwing an Ender pearl into a one-block-high space.
  • Riding a horse into a two-block-high space.
  • Standing where a tree just grew from a sapling, or where a huge mushroom just grew from a mushroom.
  • Standing where an Exit Portal just spawned after killing the Ender dragon. (is now pre-spawned as of 1.9, but does regenerate itself if broken after dragon is summoned or killed)
  • Standing where an End Gateway appeared after killing the dragon.
  • Having a solid block pushed into your head with a piston.
  • Sleeping in a bed that is surrounded by blocks and/or has a solid block above it.
  • Being teleported or filled into a block via commands.
  • When playing on a distant server, sometimes broken blocks can reappear because of lag, and if the player moves where the block respawned, it can provoke suffocation (for example, chopping down a tree by moving right below the trunk).
  • When water meets lava, or vice versa, and creates a cobblestone/obsidian/stone block on the upper half of the mob.
  • Standing where a world border getting into more than 5 blocks. (can be changed with /worldborder damage buffer)
  • Summoning a mob inside of a block through spawn eggs, commands, or with a golem/wither structure laying down.

It's worth noting that the player will not suffocate in any transparent block.

Starvation[edit | edit source]

When the food bar reaches zero, the player will take 1 (Half Heart.svg) damage every four seconds. It also shakes indicating you are hungry. The player stops taking starvation damage when the player eats or the health bar drops to 10 (Heart.svgHeart.svgHeart.svgHeart.svgHeart.svg) on easy mode or 1 (Half Heart.svg) on normal mode. In hard/hardcore mode, the damage will not stop until the player either dies, or eats something.

Cactus contact[edit | edit source]

Mobs/players take 1 (Half Heart.svg) damage every half-second that they are touching a cactus.

Lava[edit | edit source]

By far the most dangerous natural occurrence, except for the unlikely case of falling into the void. Players and mobs will take damage from contact with lava at a rate of 4 (Heart.svgHeart.svg) every half-second, and stay on fire even if they exit it, causing 1 (Half Heart.svg) point per hit for 15 hits or more (15 (Heart.svgHeart.svgHeart.svgHeart.svgHeart.svgHeart.svgHeart.svgHalf Heart.svg) total damage) unless extinguished with water.

While mining, consider keeping at least one placeable solid block ready somewhere on your toolbar (such as dirt or cobblestone) for quick access using your mouse wheel. If you mine into a lava pool, you may be able to place the block in the hole and so prevent burning. It is possible to keep a Fire Resistance potion at all times so you can prevent from dying in lava, because if you fall in the lava and act fast enough, you will be able to use the potion in time. If you're not fast enough, or have not enough health to resist the damage while drinking the potion, try using a splash potion of Fire Resistance. Or just use a bucket of water (although this doesn't help you in the Nether).

Poison[edit | edit source]

Cave spiders will poison players when they bite (only in normal and hard difficulty). Eating a spider eye, poisonous potato, or pufferfish; or drinking/being hit by a potion of poison will give the same result. While poisoned, the hearts in the health meter turn from red to an olive green (Poisoned Heart.svgPoisoned Heart.svgPoisoned Heart.svgPoisoned Heart.svgPoisoned Heart.svgPoisoned Heart.svgPoisoned Heart.svgPoisoned Heart.svgPoisoned Heart.svgPoisoned Heart.svg) and the player takes 1 (Poisoned Half Heart.svg) each 25 ticks (1.25 seconds) until the poison wears off. The poison itself cannot kill the player, but it can reduce them to 1 (Poisoned Half Heart.svg), thus leaving them very vulnerable to damage from other sources. Poison can be cured by drinking milk from a bucket.

Wither Effect[edit | edit source]

Withers and wither skeletons will inflict the
effect with their attacks. (The wither boss's skulls do not inflict the effect on easy difficulty.) This will darken your health bar to Withered Heart.svgWithered Heart.svgWithered Heart.svgWithered Heart.svgWithered Heart.svgWithered Heart.svgWithered Heart.svgWithered Heart.svgWithered Heart.svgWithered Heart.svg, while inflicting damage over time. The effect deals 1 (Withered Half Heart.svg) every 2 seconds (40 ticks) for the wither skeleton's attack (level I), and every second (20 ticks) for the Wither boss's skulls. Unlike poison, withering can kill you directly, and the darkened healthbar makes it harder to keep track of the damage, since the color black closely resembles empty hearts (Empty Heart.svg). (Note that if the blackened heart texture has a white spot on the top left, it means that the corresponding health is not lost; if the blackened heart texture has no spot, that health has been lost. And hardcore health bar is easier to observe).

The Void[edit | edit source]

If one were to break through the bedrock barrier found at the bottom of worlds, the Void can be seen. Players in the Void below height -64 will take damage at a rate of about 4 (Heart.svgHeart.svg) per half-second (or 8 (Heart.svgHeart.svgHeart.svgHeart.svg) per second). You will usually die from falling in the Void, even in creative mode, but the player may be saved by throwing an Ender pearl before they fall below y = -64.

Falling into the void in the End is more likely, so players must be cautious when entering the End.

By using /effect to give yourself regeneration 8+ or instant health you can fall infinitely into the void without dying.

Video[edit | edit source]

History[edit | edit source]

0.24_03 You can now receive fall damage.
0.24_06 You can now only hold your breath underwater for 15 seconds.
Lava now causes damage.
0.24_07 Fall damage is now much harsher.
0.24_SURVIVAL_TEST Mobs and the player now jump back when damage is taken.
Added arrows which cause damage when they hit a player.
0.25 SURVIVAL TEST 2 Arrows deal more damage.
? Before suffocation was implemented, players that were covered by blocks could see through dirt and stone. Suffocation was added after Notch discovered that players were abusing this exploit to find underground caves and hollowed carvings. The patch added suffocation damage and made the player unable to see anything when experiencing it. However, variations of this glitch are still possible to perform even in the current version of the game.
In Survival mode, eating a red mushroom would deal the player 3 (Poisoned Heart.svgPoisoned Half Heart.svg) (poisonous).
1.0.4 Players no longer suffocate when riding in a minecart.
1.5 Unarmed damage was increased from 1 (Half Heart.svg) to 2 (Heart.svg).
1.8 Unarmed damage was decreased from 2 (Heart.svg) to 1 (Half Heart.svg).
The Adventure Update extended the combat system with critical hits, sprinting (for knockback) and blocking.
Hunger system added: Health is no longer restored directly by eating. Instead, it recovers slowly when well-fed, but is lost if starving.
Poison added, which deals damage, until the player or mob's health is 1 (Poisoned Half Heart.svg).
Official release
1.0.0 Beta 1.9-pre1 Armor no longer prevents certain types of damage.
Beta 1.9-pre3 Sword damage was decreased (a diamond sword went from 5 hearts to 3.5 hearts damage).
Beta 1.9-pre4 Enchantments added, some of which increase damage you deal or decrease damage dealt to you.
1.0.0-RC1 The sound of the player taking damage was changed from a masculine "OOF! or UGHH!" sound, to a painful sounding crunch. These were changed to remove the restriction that all avatars have a male voice, regardless of the gender of the character depicted in the skin.
1.3.1 12w25a Removed the downwards knockback while drowning.
12w30a Explosions damage the player different amounts in different difficulties, and the player doesn't take any damage from explosions on Peaceful.
1.3.2 Mobs no longer shove the player when moving into them.
1.4.2 12w32a Mobs can hold weapons, making them deal more damage. Also, the crunching noise from 1.0.0 was changed, sounding more like a slap rather than a bone-breaking punch. The fall damage noise was also changed from a crunch to a dull, thumping noise.
12w34a Wither effect added, which deals damage. Unlike poison, withering can kill players or other mobs.
1.6.2 Instead of replacing the barehanded damage (1 (Half Heart.svg)), swords, shovels, pickaxes and axes now add their damage onto the barehanded damage, which results in all tools doing 1 (Half Heart.svg) more damage than before.
1.8 14w32a The health bar has a new animation for damage that shows how many hearts are lost. (Not new, merely a revived feature that was lost after 1.2.5).
1.9 15w34a Added attack cooldown.
15w34c Tool damages and cooldowns adjusted.
15w35a Tool damages and cooldowns adjusted again.
15w47b Added sounds for critical hits, fully-charged and not-fully-charged attacks, blocked attacks, sweep attacks and dealing knockback.
16w02a Cooldown damage reduction formula adjusted, reduction is now linear 50%–100% rather than quadratic 0%–100%.
16w05a Cooldown damage reduction formula adjusted again, reduction is now quadratic 20%–100%.
Pocket Edition Alpha
0.2.0 Added survival mode and mobs, making damage possible.
0.12.1 build 1 Added critical hits.
Punch damage is now added to damage from swords, axes, pickaxes, and shovels.
build 12 Critical hits now have more particles.

Trivia[edit | edit source]

  • Critical hits can be done while reflecting a ghast's fireball, but won't change the damage or speed of it.
  • In Creative mode, attacking a mob while flying after having descended will score a critical hit.
  • When attacking something with a Melee object (Fists, Swords, etc.), there is a brief cooldown before it can be hurt again. Having a Regeneration IV (4) Potion Effect however, seems to remove the cooldown, as the Player/Mob can be hit more often.
  • When a player dies, the player has the same falling-over death animation as all other mobs. This can be seen by being in third-person mode upon death, having your inventory open upon death, or witnessing the death of another player in multiplayer.
  • The maximum damage capable by a player would be a bit larger than 10 trillion. you can achieve 10 trillion damage by using special commands to give yourself a sword (It actually doesn't matter if its diamond) with the maximum level of sharpness and smite (Which would be level 32767), putting the largest number possible for the damage attribute (2147483647.999999999), using custom potions to give yourself level 127 strength and -128 weakness, giving a skeleton level -128 resistance, and lastly, getting a critical hit on the skeleton you put negative resistance on.
  • You can quit the game to prevent some damage ( fall etc.) because it will reset the fall damage that will be dealt to you.
  • Maximum damage dealable by player in survival is around 22.5 HP - 9(*1.5 with critical hit) from diamond axe or fully charged bow + 3 damage from Sharpness V/Power V and + 6 from Strength II potion. This is more than enough to one hit unarmored person and kill unenchanted diamond armored person in 2 hits. Diamond armor has 20 defense points, so you will take 15.9 HP of damage. Full set of Protection IV armor can reduce it to 7.4 HP. Effective defense of diamond armor is 67% at highest damage.
  • With all possible reductions to fall damage currently available in survival (landing on a hay bale, Feather Falling IV boots, protection IV on other armor pieces, and resistance II from a beacon) the maximum height you can fall while surviving without absorption is a little over 800 blocks.

Notes[edit | edit source]